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Out-mobility from Stockholm’s large housing estates: local neighbourhood context and the changing importance of income over ethnicity
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
(English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In political discussions, large housing estates (LHEs) in Stockholm, like in many other European cities, have become shorthand for a range of housing and socioeconomic problems. In recent decades, many such estates have displayed increasing signs of stigmatization, social exclusion, and outflow of relatively affluent people. This selective character of residential mobility from LHEs is considered problematic because it leads to neighbourhood decline. This paper improves our knowledge of how these changes in residential composition have affected out-mobility from these areas over time and how different neighbourhood conditions within LHEs affect sorting patterns. Individual annual Swedish registry data (1990–2014) are employed to longitudinally study the out-mobility patterns of three cohorts that grew up in the estates against the backdrop of growing inequality and deteriorating conditions. This study supplements the existing literature on housing estates by clarifying how income has become more and ethnicity less important over time in explaining sorting patterns from these estates. However, despite substantial changes in the importance of income and ethnic background, it is the combination of the two that has determined sorting throughout the study period. The role of neighbourhood context is, however, less clear: neighbourhoods with the lowest socioeconomic status in the estates display greater sorting based on income, but an opposite pattern is evident for ethnic background.

Keywords [en]
residential mobility, neighbourhood change, large housing estates, Stockholm
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378588OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-378588DiVA, id: diva2:1295123
Available from: 2019-03-10 Created: 2019-03-10 Last updated: 2019-03-10
In thesis
1. Moving out, moving up, becoming employed: Studies in the residential segregation and social integration of immigrants in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moving out, moving up, becoming employed: Studies in the residential segregation and social integration of immigrants in Sweden
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates the complex relationship between residential segregation and social integration. The dominant discourse in Sweden and Europe sees residential segregation as hindering socioeconomic and cultural integration, creating parallel societies and even threatening the social cohesion of European societies. Residential segregation might be a sign of social exclusion and discrimination, but it might also result from informed choices to self-segregate into particular neighbourhoods. Minority ethnic clustering, some argue, might have positive attributes, such as providing access to social capital embedded in ethnic communities. This thesis analyses the relationship between segregation and integration from the perspectives of two research traditions: drivers of segregation and neighbourhood effects. The thesis employs individual annual Swedish registry data and a k-nearest neighbour approach to identify residential neighbourhood contexts.

Paper I studies the out-mobility of three cohorts of young adults from large housing estates (LHEs) in Stockholm County against the backdrop of increasing inequality, stigmatization, and deteriorating conditions in these areas. From 1990 to 2014, income became more and ethnicity less important in explaining mobility. However, it is the combination of the two that determined sorting for all cohorts. The study also clarifies how different neighbourhood conditions within LHEs affect sorting patterns.

Paper II analyses the residential mobility of immigrants towards native-dominated neighbourhoods. The study concludes that ethnic hierarchies strongly shape residential outcomes and increased income alone does not necessarily translate into residential mobility. However, spatial integration can be facilitated by a better housing market position at the start of the housing career in Sweden, improved socioeconomic outcomes, and residing outside metropolitan areas.

Paper III examines the potential of ethnic economic capital in the neighbourhood (measured as share of employed co-ethnics) to bolster employment prospects. The results of the multi-scalar analysis of four immigrant groups show that an increase in ethnic economic capital can have a positive effect on immigrant males’ employment prospects, but the effect size varies between groups and neighbourhood scales.

The main conclusion of this thesis is that the relationship between residential segregation and social integration is not straightforward, but rather is complex and nuanced. It varies between groups with different backgrounds, but also between settlement contexts within Sweden and between neighbourhood contexts within cities. It changes over time and is influenced by the spatial scale of neighbourhood context measurements. This thesis demonstrates the usefulness of employing flexible scalable individual neighbourhoods in conceptualising space when studying social processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Social and Economic Geography, 2019. p. 84
Series
Geographica, ISSN 0431-2023 ; 23
Keywords
Residential segregation, social integration, residential mobility, neighbourhood effects, k-nearest neighbour, Sweden
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378934 (URN)978-91-506-2749-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-04-26, Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-03-10 Last updated: 2019-04-05

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