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Dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation in multiple sclerosis
Karolinska Inst, Dept Cell & Mol Biol, Stockholm, Sweden.
Karolinska Inst, Dept Cell & Mol Biol, Stockholm, Sweden.
Karolinska Inst, Dept Cell & Mol Biol, Stockholm, Sweden.
Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5208, Inst Camille Jordan, Villeurbanne, France.
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2019 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 566, no 7745, p. 538-+Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oligodendrocytes wrap nerve fibres in the central nervous system with layers of specialized cell membrane to form myelin sheaths(1). Myelin is destroyed by the immune system in multiple sclerosis, but myelin is thought to regenerate and neurological function can be recovered. In animal models of demyelinating disease, myelin is regenerated by newly generated oligodendrocytes, and remaining mature oligodendrocytes do not seem to contribute to this process(2-4). Given the major differences in the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and adaptive myelination between rodents and humans(5-9), it is not clear how well experimental animal models reflect the situation in multiple sclerosis. Here, by measuring the integration of C-14 derived from nuclear testing in genomic DNA(10), we assess the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation in patients with multiple sclerosis. The generation of new oligodendrocytes was increased several-fold in normal-appearing white matter in a subset of individuals with very aggressive multiple sclerosis, but not in most subjects with the disease, demonstrating an inherent potential to substantially increase oligodendrocyte generation that fails in most patients. Oligodendrocytes in shadow plaques-thinly myelinated lesions that are thought to represent remyelinated areas-were old in patients with multiple sclerosis. The absence of new oligodendrocytes in shadow plaques suggests that remyelination of lesions occurs transiently or not at all, or that myelin is regenerated by pre-existing, and not new, oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis. We report unexpected oligodendrocyte generation dynamics in multiple sclerosis, and this should guide the use of current, and the development of new, therapies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 566, no 7745, p. 538-+
National Category
Neurology Neurosciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379035DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0842-3ISI: 000459769100050PubMedID: 30675058OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-379035DiVA, id: diva2:1295395
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationEU, European Research CouncilAvailable from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved

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