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Post-glacial colonization routes coincide with a life-history breakpoint along a latitudinal gradient
Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, CNRS, ENTPE,LEHNA UMR5023, Villeurbanne, France.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 356-368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although adaptive divergence along environmental gradients has repeatedly been demonstrated, the role of post‐glacial colonization routes in determining phenotypic variation along gradients has received little attention. Here, we used a hierarchical QSTFST approach to separate the roles of adaptive and neutral processes in shaping phenotypic variation in moor frog (Rana arvalis) larval life histories along a 1,700 km latitudinal gradient across northern Europe. This species has colonized Scandinavia via two routes with a contact zone in northern Sweden. By using neutral SNP and common garden phenotypic data from 13 populations at two temperatures, we showed that most of the variation along the gradient occurred between the two colonizing lineages. We found little phenotypic divergence within the lineages; however, all phenotypic traits were strongly diverged between the southern and northern colonization routes, with higher growth and development rates and larger body size in the north. The QST estimates between the colonization routes were four times higher than FST, indicating a prominent role for natural selection. QST within the colonization routes did not generally differ from FST, but we found temperature‐dependent adaptive divergence close to the contact zone. These results indicate that lineage‐specific variation can account for much of the adaptive divergence along a latitudinal gradient.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 32, no 4, p. 356-368
Keywords [en]
cogradient variation, colonization, countergradient variation, latitudinal gradient, life-history traits, local adaptation, Q(ST)-F-ST comparison
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382989DOI: 10.1111/jeb.13419ISI: 000464516900006PubMedID: 30703260OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-382989DiVA, id: diva2:1315242
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4503Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationCarl Tryggers foundation Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Population divergence at different spatial scales in a wide-spread amphibian
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Population divergence at different spatial scales in a wide-spread amphibian
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To study the distribution of genetic and phenotypic variation in different environments and at different spatial scales is important in order to understand the process of local adaptation and how populations will respond to future climate change. In my thesis I study populations of moor frogs (Rana arvalis) at different spatial scales, first along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient (Paper I, II, IV) and, second, in a system of inter-connected wetlands (III, IV). In Paper I, I present evidence for a major latitudinal break-point in larval life-history traits which is linked to a post glacial contact zone between two lineages that colonized Scandinavia after the last ice age. Using QST-FST comparisons I found divergent selection acting on life-history traits, where a major source of differentiation comes from the two colonization routes. In Paper II I focus on genomic variation, demographic history and selection along the gradient. Using demographic modeling I confirm the proposed demographic history and show historical signatures of gene flow between regions and over the contact zone. In terms of genetic variation showing extreme differentiation as well as associations with growing season length I identify numerous variants under putative divergent selection, some of which have functions relating to immunity and development. I further show that differentiation outlier variation is higher in the north, as compared to neutral variation and variation associated with growing season length, which both decrease with latitude. These patterns are shaped by gene flow over the contact zone and the increased strength of drift at higher latitudes. I reduce the spatial scale in Paper III and characterize larval environments, landscape and geographical distance, to partition their influence on genetic variation. I show that environment explained more of the genetic variation than landscape and geographic distance, indicating that adaptive divergence can persist under high gene flow. Using the environmental variables, I identify genetic variants under putative divergent selection with functions associated with development and immunity. Using data from both scales, QST-FST comparisons and gene-phenotype associations I show in Paper IV that selection on both larval traits aligns across scales, whereas selection on plasticity only aligns in size at metamorphosis. This further connects to the influence of temperature and seasonal time constraints in colder environments. Finally, I find several genetic variants associated with the traits and plasticity at both spatial scales with functions relating to immunity and metamorphosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 53
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1841
Keywords
Adaptive divergence, environmental gradients, genomics, life-history, amphibians
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391039 (URN)978-91-513-0723-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-09-20, Zootissalen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-16 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved

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Mörch, Patrik RödinCortazar-Chinarro, MariaMeyer-Lucht, YvonneHöglund, JacobLaurila, Anssi

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