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A full annual perspective on sex-biased migration timing in long-distance migratory birds
Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9434-9056
Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0844-164X
Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic;Museum Nat Hist, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Aveiro, Ctr Environm & Marine Studies CESAM, Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Iceland, South Iceland Res Ctr, Laugarvatn, Iceland.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7182-0936
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1897, article id 20182821Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many taxa, the most common form of sex-biased migration timing is protandry – the earlier arrival of males at breeding areas. Here we test this concept across the annual cycle of long-distance migratory birds. Using more than 350 migration tracks of small-bodied trans-Saharan migrants, we quantify differences in male and female migration schedules and test for proximate determinants of sex-specific timing. In autumn, males started migration about 2 days earlier, but this difference did not carry over to arrival at the non-breeding sites. In spring, males on average departed from the African non-breeding sites about 3 days earlier and reached breeding sites ca 4 days ahead of females. A cross-species comparison revealed large variation in the level of protandry and protogyny across the annual cycle. While we found tight links between individual timing of departure and arrival within each migration season, only for males the timing of spring migration was linked to the timing of previous autumn migration. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that protandry is not exclusively a reproductive strategy but rather occurs year-round and the two main proximate determinants for the magnitude of sex-biased arrival times in autumn and spring are sex-specific differences in departure timing and migration duration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 286, no 1897, article id 20182821
Keywords [en]
annual cycle, geolocator, long-distance migrant, migration phenology, protandry, protogyny
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383886DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.2821ISI: 000465432500022PubMedID: 30963841OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-383886DiVA, id: diva2:1318990
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilAvailable from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved

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Gustafsson, Lars

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Briedis, MartinsBauer, SilkeAlves, Jose A.Emmenegger, TamaraGustafsson, LarsKolecek, JaroslavLiechti, Felix
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