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Metal Filling by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Laboratoire d'Analyse par Réactions Nucléaires (LARN), Namur Institute of Structured Matter (NISM), University of Namur (UNamur), Namur, Belgium.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4317-9701
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 52, no 36, article id 365202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is an emerging thin film deposition technology that provides a highly ionized flux of sputtered species. This makes HiPIMS attractive for metal filling of nanosized holes for highly scaled semiconductor devices. In this work, HiPIMS filling with Cu and Co is investigated. We show that the quality of the hole filling is determined mainly by the fraction of ions in the deposited flux and their energy. The discharge waveforms alone are insufficient to determine the ionization of the metal flux. The experimental results are in a good agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations using the measured flux characteristics. Based on the simulations, strategies to improve the filling are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 52, no 36, article id 365202
Keywords [en]
metallization, HiPIMS, ionized sputtering
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384881DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/ab28e2ISI: 000474655700001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-384881DiVA, id: diva2:1322074
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SE13-0033Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Contacts and Interconnects for Germanium-based Monolithic 3D Integrated Circuits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contacts and Interconnects for Germanium-based Monolithic 3D Integrated Circuits
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Three-dimensional integrated circuits have great potential for further increasing the number of transistors per area by stacking several device tiers on top of each other and without the need to continue the evermore complicated and expensive down-scaling of transistor dimensions. Among the different approaches towards the realization of such circuits, the monolithic approach, i.e. the tier-by-tier fabrication on a single substrate, is the most promising one in terms of integration density. Germanium is chosen as a substrate material instead of silicon in order to take advantage of its low fabrication temperatures as well as its high carrier mobilities. In this thesis, the work on two key components for the realization of such germanium-based three-dimensional integrated circuits is presented:the source/drain contacts to germanium the interconnects.

As a potential source/drain contact material, nickel germanide is investigated.In particular, the process temperature windows for the fabrication of morphologically stable nickel germanide layers formed from initial nickel layers below 10 nm are identified and the reaction between nickel and germanium is further studied by means of in-situ x-ray diffraction. The agglomeration temperature of nickel germanide is increased by 100 °C by the addition of tantalum and tungsten interlayers and capping layers. In an effort to more thoroughly characterize the contacts, a method to reliably extract the specific contact resistivity is implemented on germanium.

As a potential interconnect material cobalt is investigated. In a first step, highly conductive cobalt thin films are demonstrated by means of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. The high conductivity of the cobalt films is owing to big grains, high density, high purity, and smooth interfaces. In a second step, the potential of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering for the metallization of nanostructures is further explored.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 85
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1824
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380573 (URN)978-91-513-0687-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-09-20, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SE13-0033
Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-08-23

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Jablonka, LukasZhang, ZhenZhang, Shi-LiKubart, Tomas

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