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Divergence and plasticity of larval life-history align at different spatial scales in a high-latitude amphibian
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6737-1488
Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, CNRS, ENTPE,LEHNA UMR5023, Villeurbanne, France..
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Le Biophore, Université de Lausanne,.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Understanding divergence and plasticity of fitness associated traits along climatic gradients is important in order to understand how populations will respond to environmental change. Here we investigated larval life history evolution of the moor frog (Rana arvalis) along two climatic gradients of contrasting spatial scale: along a 1700km latitudinal gradient and in a small-scale wetland network with contrasting environments. In both systems, we conducted a common garden experiment where we raised tadpoles in two temperature treatments and measured two larval life-history traits (larval period and mass at metamorphosis) and their plasticity. We also utilized ddRAD-seq to conduct QST-FST comparisons and genotype-phenotype association studies in both systems. In the wetland network, we found low levels of genetic differentiation, but evidence of adaptive divergence in larval period and in plasticity of mass at metamorphosis. Along the latitudinal gradient, we found strong neutral genetic differentiation and evidence of selection on trait means and their plasticity for both larval period and mass at metamorphosis. These results suggest that patterns of climatic selection on traits means and plasticity largely align across different spatial scales. Finally, we identified a number of SNPs associated with the two larval-life history traits and plasticity. Several rad-tags matched genes and proteins involved in immunity and developmental processes, pointing to the potential importance of development rate-immunity trade-offs shaping life-history evolution in temperate amphibians along climatic gradients.

Keywords [en]
Selection, environmental gradients, time constraints, plasticity, life-history, GWAS, amphibians
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology; Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology; Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology; Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390999OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-390999DiVA, id: diva2:1343489
Available from: 2019-08-16 Created: 2019-08-16 Last updated: 2019-08-16
In thesis
1. Population divergence at different spatial scales in a wide-spread amphibian
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Population divergence at different spatial scales in a wide-spread amphibian
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To study the distribution of genetic and phenotypic variation in different environments and at different spatial scales is important in order to understand the process of local adaptation and how populations will respond to future climate change. In my thesis I study populations of moor frogs (Rana arvalis) at different spatial scales, first along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient (Paper I, II, IV) and, second, in a system of inter-connected wetlands (III, IV). In Paper I, I present evidence for a major latitudinal break-point in larval life-history traits which is linked to a post glacial contact zone between two lineages that colonized Scandinavia after the last ice age. Using QST-FST comparisons I found divergent selection acting on life-history traits, where a major source of differentiation comes from the two colonization routes. In Paper II I focus on genomic variation, demographic history and selection along the gradient. Using demographic modeling I confirm the proposed demographic history and show historical signatures of gene flow between regions and over the contact zone. In terms of genetic variation showing extreme differentiation as well as associations with growing season length I identify numerous variants under putative divergent selection, some of which have functions relating to immunity and development. I further show that differentiation outlier variation is higher in the north, as compared to neutral variation and variation associated with growing season length, which both decrease with latitude. These patterns are shaped by gene flow over the contact zone and the increased strength of drift at higher latitudes. I reduce the spatial scale in Paper III and characterize larval environments, landscape and geographical distance, to partition their influence on genetic variation. I show that environment explained more of the genetic variation than landscape and geographic distance, indicating that adaptive divergence can persist under high gene flow. Using the environmental variables, I identify genetic variants under putative divergent selection with functions associated with development and immunity. Using data from both scales, QST-FST comparisons and gene-phenotype associations I show in Paper IV that selection on both larval traits aligns across scales, whereas selection on plasticity only aligns in size at metamorphosis. This further connects to the influence of temperature and seasonal time constraints in colder environments. Finally, I find several genetic variants associated with the traits and plasticity at both spatial scales with functions relating to immunity and metamorphosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 53
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1841
Keywords
Adaptive divergence, environmental gradients, genomics, life-history, amphibians
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391039 (URN)978-91-513-0723-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-09-20, Zootissalen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-16 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved

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