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Microwave-Sensor-Based Clinical Measurements for Monitoring Post-Craniotomy Bone Development in Pediatric Craniosynostosis Patients
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5796-9838
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8065-0094
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5956-0713
(Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4821-8087
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(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The bone density analysis system is a new method to analyze the amount of bone healed in cranial vault defects. Craniotomy creates such defects to treat pediatric patients with craniosynostosis. This method uses the variations in the resonance of a microwave sensor attached to the area under test in the patient. Data were collected from infants treated for craniosynostosis through craniotomy surgery in clinical trials. The data, which consist of resonance parameters (frequency, amplitude, and Q-factor) is collected using a microwave-based biomedical sensor. This sensor could detect changes in the resonance as changes in the permittivity of the various tissues at the ISM band. By observing differences between a reference and target defect points, bone healing over time could be accessed. In this paper, we analyze the validity of a proposed Computational Simulation Technology (CST) based numerical model for the sensor and extend the clinical data analysis from previous works with our bone density analysis system. The validity of the model is analyzed by comparing its outcomes to available measurements from numerical simulations, phantoms mimicking living tissues and clinical trial. In the data analysis, a hypothesis is formulated and tested regarding the healing over time. By deriving a set of parameters for each collected dataset in the clinical trials, a distinct pattern was found which shows visible changes such as edema and tissue thickening over the course of the healing process with this technique. Moreover, we manage to distinguish significant differences between the reference and defect points after the craniosynostosis surgery.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392809OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-392809DiVA, id: diva2:1349929
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-23
In thesis
1. Prospective Applications of Microwaves in Medicine: Microwave Sensors for Orthopedic Monitoring and Burn Depth Assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective Applications of Microwaves in Medicine: Microwave Sensors for Orthopedic Monitoring and Burn Depth Assessment
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the use of microwave techniques for medical diagnostics has experienced impressive developments. It has demonstrated excellent competencies in various modalities such as using non-ionizing electromagnetic waves, providing non-invasive diagnoses, and having the ability to penetrate human tissues within the GHz range. However, due to anatomical, physiological, and biological variations in the human body, certain obstacles are present. Moreover, there are accuracy problems such as the absence of numerical models and experimental data, difficulty in conducting tests due to safety issues with human subjects, and also practical restrictions in clinical implementation. With the presence of these issues, a better understanding of the microwave technique is essential to further improve its medical application and to introduce alternative diagnostic methods that can detect and monitor various medical conditions in real time.

The first part of this thesis focuses on measurement systems for the microwave technique in terms of sensor design and development, numerical analysis, permittivity measurement, and phantom fabrication. The aim is to investigate the feasibility of flexible systems with different fields of application including a microwave sensor system for measuring the healing progression of bone defects present in lower extremity trauma, bone regeneration in craniotomy for craniosynostosis treatments, and dielectric variation for burn injuries. The microwave sensor which utilizes the contrast in dielectric constant between various tissues was used as the primary sensor for the proposed application. This involved detailed optimization of the sensor for greater sensitivity. The experimental work carried out in the lab environment showed that the microwave sensor was able to detect the contrast in dielectric properties so that it can give an indication of the healing status for actual clinical scenarios.

The second part of the thesis is making a significant step towards its practical implementation by establishing a system that can detect and monitor the rate of healing progression with fast data acquisition speed of microseconds, and developing an efficient user interface to convert raw microwave data into legible clinical information in terms of bone healing and burn injuries. As an extension to this thesis, clinical studies were conducted and ethical approval for conducting tests on human subjects was obtained for the development of a microwave medical system. The results showed a clear difference in healing progressions due to high detection capability in terms of dielectric properties of different human tissues. All of these contributions enable a portable system to complement existing medical applications with the aim of providing more advanced healthcare systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 96
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1855
Keywords
Microwave sensors, split ring resonator, biomedical application, orthopedics, lower extremity injuries, craniosynostosis, burn assessment, clinical measurements, tissue dielectric properties, phantom
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393105 (URN)978-91-513-0753-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-05, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-09-17 Last updated: 2019-11-12

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