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Analysis of Thickness Variation in Biological Tissues using Microwave Sensors for Health Monitoring Applications
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University. (Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5796-9838
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University. (Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6899-1424
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University. (Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5956-0713
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University. (Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)
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(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Microwave sensing technique is a possible and attractive alternative modality to standard Xrays,magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography methods for medical diagnostic applications.This technique is beneficial since it uses non-ionizing radiation and that can be potentially used for themicrowave healthcare system. The main purpose of this paper is to present a microwave sensing techniqueto analyze the variations in biological tissue thickness, considering the effect of physiological and biologicalproperties on microwave signals. With this goal, we have developed a two-port non-invasive sensor systemcomposed of two split ring resonators (SRRs) operating at an Industrial, Scientific, and Medical frequencyband of 2.45 GHz. The system is verified using the amplitude and phase of the transmitted signal in ex-vivomodels, representing different tissue thicknesses. Clinical applications such as the diagnosis of muscularatrophy can be benefitted from this study.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392816OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-392816DiVA, id: diva2:1349943
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-23
In thesis
1. Prospective Applications of Microwaves in Medicine: Microwave Sensors for Orthopedic Monitoring and Burn Depth Assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective Applications of Microwaves in Medicine: Microwave Sensors for Orthopedic Monitoring and Burn Depth Assessment
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the use of microwave techniques for medical diagnostics has experienced impressive developments. It has demonstrated excellent competencies in various modalities such as using non-ionizing electromagnetic waves, providing non-invasive diagnoses, and having the ability to penetrate human tissues within the GHz range. However, due to anatomical, physiological, and biological variations in the human body, certain obstacles are present. Moreover, there are accuracy problems such as the absence of numerical models and experimental data, difficulty in conducting tests due to safety issues with human subjects, and also practical restrictions in clinical implementation. With the presence of these issues, a better understanding of the microwave technique is essential to further improve its medical application and to introduce alternative diagnostic methods that can detect and monitor various medical conditions in real time.

The first part of this thesis focuses on measurement systems for the microwave technique in terms of sensor design and development, numerical analysis, permittivity measurement, and phantom fabrication. The aim is to investigate the feasibility of flexible systems with different fields of application including a microwave sensor system for measuring the healing progression of bone defects present in lower extremity trauma, bone regeneration in craniotomy for craniosynostosis treatments, and dielectric variation for burn injuries. The microwave sensor which utilizes the contrast in dielectric constant between various tissues was used as the primary sensor for the proposed application. This involved detailed optimization of the sensor for greater sensitivity. The experimental work carried out in the lab environment showed that the microwave sensor was able to detect the contrast in dielectric properties so that it can give an indication of the healing status for actual clinical scenarios.

The second part of the thesis is making a significant step towards its practical implementation by establishing a system that can detect and monitor the rate of healing progression with fast data acquisition speed of microseconds, and developing an efficient user interface to convert raw microwave data into legible clinical information in terms of bone healing and burn injuries. As an extension to this thesis, clinical studies were conducted and ethical approval for conducting tests on human subjects was obtained for the development of a microwave medical system. The results showed a clear difference in healing progressions due to high detection capability in terms of dielectric properties of different human tissues. All of these contributions enable a portable system to complement existing medical applications with the aim of providing more advanced healthcare systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 96
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1855
Keywords
Microwave sensors, split ring resonator, biomedical application, orthopedics, lower extremity injuries, craniosynostosis, burn assessment, clinical measurements, tissue dielectric properties, phantom
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393105 (URN)978-91-513-0753-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-05, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-09-17 Last updated: 2019-11-12

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