uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Guidance counseling in the mid-twentieth century United States: Measurement, grouping, and the making of the intelligent self
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History, The Hugo Valentin Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5313-3881
2019 (English)In: History of Science, ISSN 0073-2753, E-ISSN 1753-8564Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates National Defense Education Act and National Defense Education Act-related calls in the late 1950s for the training of guidance counselors, an emergent profession that was to play an instrumental role in both the measuring and placement of students in schools by “intelligence” or academic “ability”. In analyzing this mid-century push for more guidance counseling in schools, this article will first explore a foundational argument for the fairness of intelligence testing made by Educational Testing Service psychometrician William Turnbull in 1951, and then later taken up and employed by other National Defense Education Act-era advocates of testing and grouping. Secondly, this analysis will proceed to National Defense Education Act expert testimony, examining here assertions of the necessity of guidance counseling in schools, and an emergent and shared vision articulating the role guidance counseling was supposed to play in school life. A pattern or structure to this vision emerges here. According to its advocates, guidance counseling would not only inform the self-understanding of the measured individual, but it would also work to condition the ideology of individual intelligence across numerous layers of social life around the student: through peer group, through teachers and school administrators, and finally through home, family, and the wider community.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019.
Keywords [en]
Guidance counseling, Education, Educational Policy, National Defense Education Act, Brown v. Board, Intelligence testing, Hereditarianism, Race and racism
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393773DOI: 10.1177/0073275319874977OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-393773DiVA, id: diva2:1355068
Funder
Wallenberg Foundations, MAW 2018.0038Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-09-26

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full texthttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0073275319874977

Authority records BETA

Porter, Jim Wynter

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Porter, Jim Wynter
By organisation
The Hugo Valentin Centre
In the same journal
History of Science
History

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 234 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf