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The Permeation of Acamprosate Is Predominantly Caused by Paracellular Diffusion across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers: A Paracellular Modeling Approach
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2019 (English)In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 4636-4650Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In drug development, estimating fraction absorbed (Fa) in man for permeability-limited compounds is important but challenging. To model Fa of such compounds from apparent permeabilities (Papp) across filter-grown Caco-2 cell monolayers, it is central to elucidate the intestinal permeation mechanism(s) of the compound. The present study aims to refine a computational permeability model to investigate the relative contribution of paracellular and transcellular routes to the Papp across Caco-2 monolayers of the permeability-limited compound acamprosate having a bioavailability of ∼11%. The Papp values of acamprosate and of several paracellular marker molecules were measured. These Papp values were used to refine system-specific parameters of the Caco-2 monolayers, that is, paracellular pore radius, pore capacity, and potential drop. The refined parameters were subsequently used as an input in modeling the permeability (Pmodeled) of the tested compounds using mathematical models collected from two published permeability models. The experimental data show that acamprosate Papp across Caco-2 monolayers is low and similar in both transport directions. The obtained acamprosate Papp, 1.56 ± 0.28 × 10-7 cm·s-1, is similar to the Papp of molecular markers for paracellular permeability, namely, mannitol (2.72 ± 0.24 × 10-7 cm·s-1), lucifer yellow (1.80 ± 0.35 × 10-7 cm·s-1), and fluorescein (2.10 ± 0.28 × 10-7 cm·s-1), and lower than that of atenolol (7.32 ± 0.60 × 10-7 cm·s-1; mean ± SEM, n = 3-6), while the end-point amount of acamprosate internalized by the cell monolayer, Qmonolayer, was lower than that of mannitol. Acamprosate did not influence the barrier function of the monolayers since it altered neither the Papp of the three paracellular markers nor the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the cell monolayer. The Pmodeled for all the paracellular markers and acamprosate was dominated by the Ppara component and matched the experimentally obtained Papp. Furthermore, acamprosate did not inhibit the uptake of probe substrates for solute carriers PEPT1, TAUT, PAT1, EAAT1, B0,+AT/rBAT, OATP2B1, and ASBT expressed in Caco-2 cells. Thus, the Pmodeled estimated well Ppara, and the paracellular route appears to be the predominant mechanism for acamprosate Papp across Caco-2 monolayers, while the alternative transcellular routes, mediated by passive diffusion or carriers, are suggested to only play insignificant roles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019. Vol. 16, no 11, p. 4636-4650
Keywords [en]
Caco-2, acamprosate, paracellular modeling, paracellular permeability, permeability modeling, permeability-limited absorption, transcellular permeability
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395488DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00733ISI: 000494894300019PubMedID: 31560549OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-395488DiVA, id: diva2:1362415
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NordForskAvailable from: 2019-10-19 Created: 2019-10-19 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved

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Karlgren, MariaBergström, Christel

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