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Dog Ownership and Survival After a Major Cardiovascular Event: A Register-Based Prospective Study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4421-6466
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Div Ruminant Med & Vet Epidemiol, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Stanford Diabet Res Ctr, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2256-6972
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2019 (English)In: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, ISSN 1941-7713, E-ISSN 1941-7705, Vol. 12, no 10, article id e005342Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity levels and increased social support, both of which could improve the outcome after a major cardiovascular event. Dog ownership may be particularly important in single-occupancy households where ownership provides substitutive companionship and motivation for physical activity.

Methods and Results: We used the Swedish National Patient Register to identify all patients aged 40 to 85 presenting with an acute myocardial infarction (n=181 696; 5.7% dog ownership) or ischemic stroke (n=154 617; 4.8% dog ownership) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2012. Individual information was linked across registers for cause of death, sociodemographic, and dog ownership data. We evaluated all-cause mortality and risk of recurrent hospitalization for the same cause until December 31, 2012. Models were adjusted for socioeconomic, health, and demographic factors at study inclusion such as age, marital status, the presence of children in the home, area of residence, and income, as well as all registered comorbidities and hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in the past 5 years. Dog owners had a lower risk of death after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction during the full follow-up period of 804 137 person-years, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.61 to 0.75) for those who lived alone, and HR of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.90) for those living with a partner or a child. Similarly, after an ischemic stroke, dog owners were at lower risk of death during the full follow-up of 638 219 person-years adjusted HR of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.80) for those who lived alone and HR of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.93) for those living with a partner or a child. We further found an association of dog ownership with reduced risk of hospitalization for recurrent myocardial infarction (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99).

Conclusions: We found evidence of an association of dog ownership with a better outcome after a major cardiovascular event. Although our models are adjusted for many potential confounders, there are also unmeasured confounders such as smoking that prevent us from drawing conclusions regarding a possible causal effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 12, no 10, article id e005342
Keywords [en]
cardiovascular diseases, dog ownership, motivation, myocardial infarction
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396741DOI: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.005342ISI: 000490295200002PubMedID: 31592725OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-396741DiVA, id: diva2:1371405
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-1673EU, European Research CouncilGöran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of TechnologyAvailable from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved

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Mubanga, MwenyaByberg, LiisaIngelsson, ErikFall, Tove

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