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Clozapine protects adult neural stem cells from ketamine-induced cell death in correlation with decreased apoptosis and autophagy.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. SLL. (Ulf Jonsson)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9726-6478
2010 (English)In: Bioscience Reports, ISSN 0144-8463, E-ISSN 1573-4935, Vol. 31, no 40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adult neurogenesis, the production of newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) has been suggested to be decreased in patients with schizophrenia. A similar finding was observed in an animal model of schizophrenia, as indicated by decreased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling cells in response to a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. The antipsychotic drug clozapine was shown to counteract the observed decrease in BrdU-labelled cells in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, phenotypic determination by immunohistochemistry analysis could not reveal whether BrdU-positive cells were indeed NSCs. Using a previously established cell model for analysing NSC protection in vitro, we investigated a protective effect of clozapine on NSCs. Primary NSCs were isolated from the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ), we show that clozapine had a NSC protective activity alone, as evident by employing an ATP cell viability assay. In contrast, haloperidol did not show any NSC protective properties. Subsequently, cells were exposed to the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, had a NSC protective/anti-apoptotic activity against ketamine-induced cytotoxicity. The observed NSC protective activity of clozapine was associated with increased expression of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2, decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic cleaved form of caspase-3 and associated with decreased expression of the autophagosome marker 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II). Collectively, our findings suggest that clozapine may have a protective/anti-apoptotic effect on NSCs, supporting previous in vivo observations, indicating a neurogenesis-promoting activity for clozapine. If the data are further confirmed in vivo, the results may encourage an expanded use of clozapine to restore impaired neurogenesis in schizophrenia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Portland, 2010. Vol. 31, no 40
Keywords [en]
Clozapine
National Category
Medical Biotechnology
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405676OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-405676DiVA, id: diva2:1405505
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-02-28

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