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Degradation Mechanism of Silver Metal Deposited on Lead Halide Perovskites
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4317-2879
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8249-1469
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9358-8277
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2020 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 7212-7221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lead halide perovskite solar cells have significantly increased in both efficiency and stability over the last decade. An important aspect of their longterm stability is the reaction between the perovskite and other materials in the solar cell. This includes the contact materials and their degradation if they can potentially come into contact through, e.g., pinholes or material diffusion and migration. Here, we explore the interactions of silver contacts with lead halide perovskites of different compositions by using a model system where thermally evaporated silver was deposited directly on the surface of the perovskites. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with support from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, we studied the film formation and degradation of silver on perovskites with different compositions. The deposited silver does not form a continuous silver film but instead tends to form particles on a bare perovskite surface. These particles are initially metallic in character but degrade into AgI and AgBr over time. The degradation and migration appear unaffected by the replacement of methylammonium with cesium but are significantly slowed down by the complete replacement of iodide with bromide. The direct contact between silver and the perovskite also significantly accelerates the degradation of the perovskite, with a significant loss of organic cations and the possible formation of PbO, and, at the same time, changed the surface morphology of the iodide-rich perovskite interface. Our results further indicate that an important degradation pathway occurred through gas-phase perovskite degradation products. This highlights the importance of control over the interface materials and the use of completely hermetical barrier layers for the long-term stability and therefore the commercial viability of silver electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC , 2020. Vol. 12, no 6, p. 7212-7221
Keywords [en]
perovskite solar cells, electrode stability, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, interface chemistry, noble metal electrodes
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-407282DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b20315ISI: 000514256400040PubMedID: 31958007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-407282DiVA, id: diva2:1416363
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2018-04125Swedish Research Council, 2018-06465Swedish Research Council, 2018-04330Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA15-0130Swedish Energy Agency, P43549-1StandUpÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)Göran Gustafsson Foundation for Research in Natural Sciences and MedicineAvailable from: 2020-03-23 Created: 2020-03-23 Last updated: 2020-03-23Bibliographically approved

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Svanström, SebastianJacobsson, JesperBoschloo, GerritJohansson, ErikRensmo, Håkan

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Svanström, SebastianJacobsson, JesperBoschloo, GerritJohansson, ErikRensmo, HåkanCappel, Ute B.
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