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Quantitative analysis of plasmon excitations in hard x-ray photoelectron spectra of bulk black phosphorus
Univ Fed Bahia, Inst Fis, Campus Univ Ondina, BR-40210340 Salvador, BA, Brazil.
Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, IPR, UMR 6251, F-35042 Rennes, France.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6471-1093
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9188-9604
2020 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 505, article id 144385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black phosphorus (BPh) is a layered material with strong in-plane anisotropy of its structural and electronic properties; in spite of the great potential of BPh for conceptually new devices in optoelectronics and plasmonics, its fundamental electronic excitations have not yet been fully elucidated. In order to discriminate collective (plasmons) and single-particle (inter band transitions) excitations, we investigate the energy-loss distribution of P 1s photoelectrons in hard X-ray photoelectron spectra of BPh over a wide energy range. The energy-loss function (ELF), averaged over the principal directions of the BPh crystal, has been retrieved by using a Fourier Transform analysis to eliminate multiple inelastic scattering events. At low loss energies (1-8 eV), weak unresolved energy loss peaks are well described by DFT calculated inter band transitions, showing some anisotropy in the dielectric function epsilon(omega, q) tensor of BPh. At high loss energies, the ELF is dominated by the collective excitation of valence electrons with a peak energy at 20.1 +/- 0.2 eV, and weak anisotropy is found in the DFT calculated Im(- 1/epsilon) tensor. The anomalously small peak energy (9.0 +/- 0.5 eV) of a weak surface plasmon resonance is attributed either to low surface electron density in the terminal phosphorene layer or to some anisotropic surface plasmon propagation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2020. Vol. 505, article id 144385
Keywords [en]
Black phosphorus, XPS, HAXPES, Energy loss, Plasmon
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-407533DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.144385ISI: 000510846500037OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-407533DiVA, id: diva2:1416910
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-6463Available from: 2020-03-25 Created: 2020-03-25 Last updated: 2020-04-01Bibliographically approved
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Johansson, Fredrik O. L.Lindblad, Andreas

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