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Effects of dyeing and bleaching industries on the area around the Orathupalayam Dam in Southern India
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2004 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Rural people around the 4 km2 Orathupalayam Dam in southern India live in one of India’s most polluted areas. The people were once restricted mainly by scarcity of water but today they cannot drink their well water or cultivate their soil. The dam, created to store floodwater from the Noyyal River, also stores effluent water from the more than 700 dyeing and bleaching industries situated in the town of Tiruppur, 20 km upstream. Although most industries have treatment plants they do not treat total dissolved solids (TDS) and thus NaCl becomes one of the major components of the effluent. 75 to 100 million litres of effluents are released every day.

Through water sampling in open and bore wells, and with the help of GPS, ArcView and Surfer it could be concluded that high TDS levels and concentrations of Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ were associated with the dam. A definite spatial pattern of the spreading of polluted water could be determined. Water from the dam was fed to the ground water all around the dam and also affected the groundwater more than 4 km to the southeast. Soil samples and interviews with farmers made it clear that land irrigated with dam water or affected well water soon became uncultivable. The water destroyed the soil structure and seeds did not germinate after irrigation with polluted water.

Through interviews it could be concluded that the local people around the dam paid a large part of the externalities of the polluting activities of the textile industries in terms of negative health effects and lost agricultural land, water resources, fishing and working opportunities. These problems have mostly been caused by the high salt concentration in the effluents but it is unclear to what extent other substances have caused or might cause harmful effects to the environment, people and animals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för geovetenskaper , 2004. , p. 98
Series
UPTEC W, ISSN 1401-5765 ; 04 033
Keywords [en]
Dyeing and Bleaching industries, Tiruppur, Orathupalayam Dam, pollution, water quality, soil quality, saline water, saline soil
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-88862OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-88862DiVA, id: diva2:159170
Presentation
(English)
Uppsok
Life Earth Science
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2010-01-13 Created: 2004-01-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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