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High-level reasoning and base-rate use: Do we need cue-competition to explain the inverse base-rate effect?
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2001 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 27, no 3, 849-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Description
Abstract [en]

Previous accounts of the inverse base-rate effect (D. L. Medin & S. M. Edelson, 1988) have revolved around the concept of cue-competition. In this article, the authors propose that high-level reasoning in the form of an eliminative inference mechanism may contribute to the effect. A quantitative implementation of this idea demonstrates that it has the power by itself to produce the pattern of base-rate effects in the Medin and Edelson (1988) design. Four predictions are derived that contradict the predictions by attention to distinctive input (ADIT; J. K. Kruschke, 1996), up to date the most successful account of the inverse base-rate effect. Results from 3 experiments disconfirm the predictions by ADIT and demonstrate the importance of high-level reasoning in designs of the Medin and Edelson kind. Implications for the interpretation of the inverse base-rate effect and the attention-shifting mechanisms presumed by ADIT are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 27, no 3, 849-871 p.
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89524DOI: 10.1037/0278-7393.27.3.849PubMedID: 11394684OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-89524DiVA: diva2:161066
Available from: 2001-11-16 Created: 2001-11-16 Last updated: 2016-09-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Role of High-Level Reasoning and Rule-Based Representations in the Inverse Base-Rate Effect
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of High-Level Reasoning and Rule-Based Representations in the Inverse Base-Rate Effect
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The inverse base-rate effect is the observation that on certain occasions people classify new objects as belonging to rare base-rate categories rather than common ones (e.g., D. L. Medin & S. M. Edelson, 1988). This finding is inconsistent with normative prescriptions of rationality, and provides an anomaly for current theories of human knowledge representation, such as the exemplar-based models of categorization, which predict a consistent use of base-rates (e.g., D. L. Medin & M. M. Schaffer, 1978). This thesis presents a novel explanation of the inverse base-rate effect. The proposal is that participants sometimes eliminate category options that are inconsistent with well-supported inference rules. These assumptions contrast with those by attentional theory (J. K. Kruschke, in press), according to which the inverse base-rate effect is the outcome of rapid attention shifts operating on cue-category associations. Study I, II, and III verified seven qualitative predictions derived from the eliminative inference idea. None of these phenomena can be explained by attentional theory. The most important of these findings were that elimination of well-known, common categories mediate the inverse base-rate effect rather than the strongest cue-category associations (Study I), that only participants with a rule-based mode of generalization exhibit the inverse base-rate effect (Study II), and that rapid attentional shifts per se do not accelerate learning, but rather decelerate it (Study III). In addition, Study I provided a quantitative implementation of the eliminative inference idea, ELMO, that demonstrated that this high-level reasoning process can produce the basic pattern of base-rate effects in the inverse base-rate design. Taken together, as an account of the inverse base-rate effect the empirical evidence of this thesis suggest that rule-based elimination is a powerful component of the inverse base-rate effect. But previous studies have indicated that attentional shifts affect the inverse base-rate effect, too. Therefore, a complete account of the inverse base-rate effect needs to integrate inductive and eliminative inferences operating on rule-based representations with attentional shifts. The Discussion of this thesis propose a number of suggestions for such integrative work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2001. 192 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 0282-7492 ; 107
Keyword
Psychology, inverse base-rate effect, rationality, human knowledge representations, exemplar-based models of categorization, eliminative inference, inference rules, rapid attention shifts, associations, Psykologi
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-1494 (URN)91-554-5178-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2001-12-14, Universitethuset, sal IX, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Available from: 2001-11-16 Created: 2001-11-16Bibliographically approved

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Juslin, Peter

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