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Differentiating Type A behaviour and hyperactivity using observed motivation during a reaction time task
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
2003 (English)In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 12, no 2, 145-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In light of the previously found overlap between Type A behaviour as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) and hyperactivity scales, the overall aim of this study was to clarify the standing of MYTH‐defined Type A behaviour relative to hyperactivity and Attention‐Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), using observed task motivation and performance on a choice reaction‐time task, the Complex Reaction Time (CRT) measure. This study included 21 boys exhibiting Type A behaviour, 22 ADHD boys, 20 non‐clinically hyperactive boys, and 20 non‐hyperactive boys, between the ages of 6 and 13 years. It was proposed that a differentiation of constructs would be possible using observed task motivation if the MYTH were a discriminantly valid measure of Type A behaviour. Results showed that the MYTH‐defined Type A group differed from the clinically diagnosed ADHD group, although it was markedly similar to the non‐clinical hyperactive group, displaying comparable CRT performance and low level of task motivation. Type A behaviour correlated to CRT performance and task motivation in a way which was conceptually more indicative of hyperactivity than of Type A behaviour, which questions the validity of the MYTH as a measure of the Type A construct. The MYTH Impatience subscale was found to be particularly impure with regard to hyperactivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 12, no 2, 145-158 p.
Keyword [en]
Type A behaviour, hyperactivity, ADHD, motivation, reaction time task
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89618DOI: 10.1002/icd.270OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-89618DiVA: diva2:161261
Available from: 2002-01-30 Created: 2002-01-30 Last updated: 2013-06-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Type A Behavior and Hyperactivity/ADHD: Are They Related?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Type A Behavior and Hyperactivity/ADHD: Are They Related?
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis focuses on Type A behavior in children and its possible relation to hyperactivity/ADHD. Type A behavior in children has commonly been studied as the child equivalent behaviors of the adult pattern, in other words, competitive achievement-striving, impatience/time-urgency, and aggressiveness.

Study I investigated the convergent and discriminant validity of observationally assessed Type A behavior with regard to parent- and teacher-rated Type A behavior (Matthews Youth Test for Health [MYTH] questionnaire) and hyperactivity (questionnaire) among 8-year-olds. Study II was similar although these relations were studied longitudinally between 4 and 8 years of age, and hyperactivity was observationally assessed at age 4. The results of Studies I and II showed that Type A behavior is discernible already at age 4 and that it should be regarded as a phenomenon rather distinct from hyperactivity. Assessing aspects of Impatience, however, was found to be problematic, both in terms of discriminating between Type A behavior and hyperactivity, and in terms of showing stability over time. The MYTH was concluded to measure Type A behavior too indiscriminately, showing a substantial overlap with hyperactivity.

Study III attempted to differentiate Type A behavior (MYTH-defined) and hyperactivity/ADHD using observed motivation during a reaction time task. The results pointed to the MYTH as indiscriminant from hyperactivity measures with regard to observed motivation and task performance. The perception of Type A individuals as highly motivated to achieve was not evident in this study.

In Study IV, an observationally assessed Type A group was compared to a Type B group and an ADHD group on measures of inhibitory control and executive functioning. The results pointed to similarities between Type A and ADHD boys regarding overt displays of time-urgency and impatience. However, differences on other tasks of executive functioning lead to speculations concerning differing origins of overtly similar characteristics of Type A behavior and ADHD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2002. 85 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 0282-7492 ; 111
Keyword
Psychology, Type A behavior, hyperactivity, ADHD, observations, children, MYTH, development, Psykologi
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-1654 (URN)91-554-5223-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2002-02-22, Universitetshusets lärosal X, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Available from: 2002-01-30 Created: 2002-01-30Bibliographically approved

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Bohlin, Gunilla

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