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Active-site residues governing high steroid isomerase activity in human glutathione transferase A3-3
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
2002 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 277, no 19, 16648-16654 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Glutathione transferase (GST) A3-3 is the most efficient human steroid double-bond isomerase known. The activity with Delta(5)-androstene-3,17-dione is highly dependent on the phenolic hydroxyl group of Tyr-9 and the thiolate of glutathione. Removal of these groups caused an 1.1 x 10(5)-fold decrease in k(cat); the Y9F mutant displayed a 150-fold lower isomerase activity in the presence of glutathione and a further 740-fold lower activity in the absence of glutathione. The Y9F mutation in GST A3-3 did not markedly decrease the activity with the alternative substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Residues Phe-10, Leu-111, and Ala-216 selectively govern the activity with the steroid substrate. Mutating residue 111 into phenylalanine caused a 25-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m) for the steroid isomerization. The mutations A216S and F10S, separate or combined, affected the isomerase activity only marginally, but with the additional L111F mutation k(cat)/K(m) was reduced to 0.8% of that of the wild-type value. In contrast, the activities with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and phenethylisothiocyanate were not largely affected by the combined mutations F10S/L111F/A216S. K(i) values for Delta(5)-androstene-3,17-dione and Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione were increased by the triple mutation F10S/L111F/A216S. The pK(a) of the thiol group of active-site-bound glutathione, 6.1, increased to 6.5 in GST A3-3/Y9F. The pK(a) of the active-site Tyr-9 was 7.9 for the wild-type enzyme. The pH dependence of k(cat)/K(m) of wild-type GST A3-3 for the isomerase reaction displays two kinetic pK(a) values, 6.2 and 8.1. The basic limb of the pH dependence of k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) disappears in the Y9F mutant. Therefore, the higher kinetic pK(a) reflects ionization of Tyr-9, and the lower one reflects ionization of glutathione. We propose a reaction mechanism for the double-bond isomerization involving abstraction of a proton from C4 in the steroid accompanied by protonation of C6, the thiolate of glutathione serving as a base and Tyr-9 assisting by polarizing the 3-oxo group of the substrate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 277, no 19, 16648-16654 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89718DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M201062200PubMedID: 11872752OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-89718DiVA: diva2:161426
Available from: 2002-03-27 Created: 2002-03-27 Last updated: 2013-06-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Exploring the Functional Plasticity of Human Glutathione Transferases: Allelic Variants, Novel Isoenzyme and Enzyme Redesign
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Functional Plasticity of Human Glutathione Transferases: Allelic Variants, Novel Isoenzyme and Enzyme Redesign
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) make up a superfamily that is involved in the cellular defense against various reactive compounds by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione to electrophilic centra. Members of this family have also been implicated in different facets of biological signaling.

The gene encoding human GST P1-1 is polymorphic, resulting in variant amino acid residues in positions 105 and 114. The role of the polymorphism in the active-site residue 105 on enzyme stability and activity with various substrates was investigated. A valine instead of an isoleucine in position 105 decreased the thermal stability of the enzyme. The effect on enzyme activity was dependent on the substrate and reaction studied. With some substrates tested, such as carcinogenic diolepoxides derived from polyaromatic hydrocarbons, GST P1-1/Val105 displayed the highest catalytic efficiency. In contrast, with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, the GST P1-1/Ile105 showed higher activity. Residue 105 was mutated to alanine and tryptophan to investigate the role of size and hydrophobicity of residue 105 on enzyme properties. Generally, a smaller amino acid in position 105 gave increased activity with large substrates. Clearly, residue 105 of GST P1-1 helps to determine the substrate selectivity of the enzyme. In addition, more voluminous amino acids in position 105 increase the thermal stability of the enzyme.

GST P1-1 is believed to contribute to the development of drug resistance in cancer cells. The affinity of GST P1-1 for TER 117, designed to inhibit GST P1-1 in tumors, was not affected by the variability in position 105. TER 117 was found to be a potent inhibitor of glyoxalase I as well.

The cDNA encoding GST A3-3 was isolated from a placental cDNA library. GST A3-3 was heterologously expressed, purified and found to catalyze efficiently the double-bond isomerization of Δ5-androstene-3,17-dione and Δ5-pregnene-3,20-dione, reactions taking place in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones testosterone and progesterone, respectively. GST A3-3 was found to be selectively expressed in steroidogenic tissues, suggesting that this enzyme is involved in the production of steroid hormones. The presence of both the hydroxyl group of the active-site tyrosine 9 and the thiolate form of glutathione, acting as a cofactor, is important for high double-bond isomerase activity. A leucine in position 111 appears to have a major role in productive binding of the steroid substrate but also residues F10 and A216 are determinants for the high isomerase activity.

GST A2-2 is a poor catalyst of the steroid double-bond isomerization of Δ5-androstene-3,17-dione as compared to GST A3-3, despite 88% sequence identity. GST A2-2 was redesigned to a highly efficient double-bond isomerase by mutating five active-site residues to the corresponding residues of GST A3-3. This demonstrates the functional plasticity of GSTs and the power of a rational approach to redesign of these enzymes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2002. 56 p.
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 695
Biochemistry, Biokemi
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-1858 (URN)91-554-5270-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2002-04-19, B42, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, 10:15
Available from: 2002-03-27 Created: 2002-03-27Bibliographically approved

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