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Electrochemically lithiated graphite characterised by photoelectron spectroscopy
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
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2003 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 119-121, 522-527 p.Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the depth profile of the solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on a graphite powder electrode in a Li-ion battery. The morphology of the SEI-layer, formed in a 1 M LiBF4 EC/DMC 2:1 solution, consists of a 900 Å porous layer of polymers (polyethylene oxide) and a 15–20 Å thin layer of Li2CO3 and LiBF4 reduction–decomposition products. Embedded LiF crystals as large as 0.2 μm were found in the polymer matrix. LiOH and Li2O are not major components on the surface but rather found as a consequence of sputter-related reactions. Monochromatised Al Kα XPS-analysis based on the calibration of Ar+ ion sputtering of model compounds combined with a depth profile analysis based on energy tuning of synchrotron XPS can describe the highly complex composition and morphology of the SEI-layer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 119-121, 522-527 p.
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89738DOI: 10.1016/S0378-7753(03)00277-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-89738DiVA: diva2:161459
Conference
11th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, June 23 - 28, 2002, Monterey, California
Available from: 2002-03-21 Created: 2002-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ion Insertion into Electrode Materials Studied with X-Ray and Electron Spectroscopic Methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion Insertion into Electrode Materials Studied with X-Ray and Electron Spectroscopic Methods
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ion insertion into electrode materials can be used to store energy in battery applications. In this thesis, photoelectron spectroscopic and x-ray absorption spectroscopic methods have been used to study the change of the electronic structure of host materials during electrochemical ion insertion.

Specifically, the properties of ion insertion into nanoporous TiO2 were studied. It is demonstrated that the insertion of Li ions results in a reduction of the Ti4+ sites in TiO2 to Ti3+ sites close to the inserted Li ion. The intensity of the Ti3+ is directly correlated to the number of inserted electrons. It is also shown that the two phases resulting from moderate insertion can be detected by studying the electronic structure of inserted Li ions and the behavior observed can be correlated with electrochemical measurements.

Insertion of ions into tungsten oxides is a potential candidate for smart window and display applications. Ion insertion into these materials was, also studied with electron spectroscopic methods. The insertion of H+ reduces W6+ to W5+ and further insertion results in a reduction to W4+. Cyclic voltammerty shows two reduction peaks where the first peak implies reduction of W6+ to W5+ and the second peak can be associated with further reduction to W4+.

During the first charge/discharge cycles of a battery based on graphite anodes a solid electrolyte interface layer is formed on the electrode surface. This layer consumes some of the charge carrying Li ions, hence decreases the capacity of the battery. A careful characterization of this layer has been performed to aid in the further development of this type of battery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2002. 60 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 698
Keyword
Physics, Fysik
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-1885 (URN)91-554-5268-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2002-04-12, Häggsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Available from: 2002-03-21 Created: 2002-03-21Bibliographically approved

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Siegbahn, HansJansson, UlfEdström, Kristina

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