Increased Smad Expression and Activation are Associated with Apoptosis in Normal and Malignant Prostate after Castration
1999 (English)In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, Vol. 59, no 11, 2731-2738 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is induced in the prostate after castration and has been implicated in apoptosis of epithelial cells during involution. TGF-beta1-mediated receptor activation induces phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, which form complexes with Smad4, that translocate to the nucleus to regulate transcription of target genes. Smad6 and Smad7 antagonize the action of signal-transducing Smads. We have examined the immunohistochemical expression of different Smad molecules in the epithelium of rat ventral prostate before and after castration, in androgen-sensitive Dunning R3327 PAP prostatic tumor cells from untreated and castrated rats, and after treatment with estrogen. In the ventral prostate, a significant increase of phosphorylated Smad2 (P-Smad2) was observed after castration. In prostatic tumor cells we observed an increased expression of Smad2 and P-Smad2 after treatment. The levels of Smad3 and, in particular, Smad4 were enhanced in the normal ventral prostate, as well as in the tumors after castration. Interestingly, Smad6 and Smad7 expression was also up-regulated in cells with increased Smad2 activation. The staining for Smad2, P-Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7 was nuclear in some cells and was present in areas with a large number of apoptotic cells identified by various morphological criteria, formation of apoptotic bodies and, in adjacent sections, by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. Our results suggest that the signal transduction pathway for TGF-beta, leading to apoptosis, is activated in the normal prostate after castration and in the tumor model after castration, without or with estrogen treatment.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for Cancer Research , 1999. Vol. 59, no 11, 2731-2738 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89785PubMedID: 10363999OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-89785DiVA: diva2:161531