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Latitudinal and temperature-dependent variation in embryonic development and growth in Rana temporaria
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
2003 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 135, no 4, p. 548-554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variation in seasonal time constraints and temperature along latitudinal gradients are expected to select for life history trait differentiation, but information about the relative importance of these factors in shaping patterns of divergence in embryonic traits remains sparse. We studied embryonic survival, growth and development rates in the common frog (Rana temporaria) along a 1,400-km latitudinal gradient across Sweden by raising embryos from four populations in the laboratory at seven temperatures (9 degrees C, 12 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 21 degrees C, 24 degrees C, 27 degrees C). We found significant differences in mean values of all traits between the populations and temperature treatments, but this variation was not latitudinally ordered. In general, embryonic survival decreased at the two highest temperatures in all populations, but less so in the southernmost as compared to the other populations. The northernmost population developed slowest at the lowest temperature, while the two mid-latitude populations were slowest at the other temperatures. Hatchling size increased with increasing temperature especially in the two northern populations, whereas the two southern populations showed peak hatchling size at 15 degrees C. Analyses of within-population genetic variation with a half-sib design revealed that there was significant additive genetic variation in all traits, and egg size-related maternal effects were important in the case of hatchling size. Overall, our results indicate that unlike larval growth and development, variation in embryonic development and growth in R. temporaria cannot be explained in terms of a latitudinal gradient in season length. While adaptation to a latitudinal variation in temperature might have contributed to the observed differentiation in embryonic performance, the effects of other, perhaps more local environmental factors, seem to have overridden them in importance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 135, no 4, p. 548-554
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90158DOI: 10.1007/s00442-003-1229-0PubMedID: 16228254OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-90158DiVA, id: diva2:162409
Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Local Adaptation, Countergradient Variation and Ecological Genetics of Life-history Traits in Rana Temporaria
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Adaptation, Countergradient Variation and Ecological Genetics of Life-history Traits in Rana Temporaria
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main aim of this work was to identify local adaptation processes in amphibian populations, thereby improving the general understanding of genetics and mechanisms behind the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. Phenotypic and genetic variation in life-history traits was studied within and between populations common frog (Rana temporaria) populations along a 1600 km transect from southern Sweden to northern Finland.

Embryonic and larval development and growth was investigated both under field and laboratory conditions. The results suggest ample genetic diversity in larval life-history traits among Fennoscandian common frog populations. Larval developmental rate along the gradient has evolved a countergradient variation pattern of genotypes and phenotypes as indicated by the positive relationship between developmental rate and latitude under laboratory conditions and the lack of such a relationship in the field. The data suggest that this pattern has evolved because of time constraints due to decreasing length of growth season with latitude. Neither field-caught adults nor laboratory raised larvae displayed a linear latitudinal size cline as expected from the so called Bergmanns rule. Rather, size increased towards the mid-latitude populations and decreased thereafter, indicating that body size is a product of direct environmental induction or a trade-off with other life-history characters. Age and size at hatching showed no consistent latitudinal pattern, indicating that the embryonic stage is not as time constrained as the larval stage.

A large part of the variation in age and size at metamorphosis among populations was due to additive genetic effects. However, small, but significant maternal effects, mostly due to variation in egg size and non-additive genetic effects also contributed to among population variation. A comparison of divergence in presumably neutral molecular genetic markers (FST) and quantitative characters (QST) revealed that although both estimates of divergence were relatively high, estimates of QST was generally higher than those of FST, indicating that the genetic variation observed in larval traits is primarily a result of natural selection rather than genetic drift. Hence, our results reinforce the conclusion that intraspecific genetic heterogeneity in the young northern European ecosystems may be more widespread than previously anticipated

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2003. p. 33
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 818
Keywords
Ecology, amphibians, Bergmanns rule, body size clines, countergradient variation, developmental rate, FST, temperature, QST, Ekologi
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3332 (URN)91-554-5558-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-03-28, Zootissalen, Uppsala, 13:00
Opponent
Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06Bibliographically approved

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