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Do common frogs (Rana temporaria) follow Bergmann’s rule?
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
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2005 (English)In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 7, no 5, 717-731 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Questions: Does intraspecific extension of Bergmanns rule – larger size within a species incooler areas – hold true for ectotherms in general, and for the common frog (Rana temporaria)in particular? What is the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. directenvironmental induction) in determining latitudinal patterns of body size variation in commonfrogs?Methods: We tested for a positive association between mean body size and latitude incommon frogs (Rana temporaria) across a 1600 km long latitudinal gradient in Scandinaviaboth for wild-collected adults and laboratory-reared metamorphs.Results: In adults, the mean body size increased from south to mid-latitudes, and declinedthereafter. This occurred despite the fact that the mean age of adult frogs increased withincreasing latitude, and age and body size were positively correlated. The latitudinal pattern ofbody size variation in metamorphs reared in a common garden experiment was similar to thatobserved among wild-caught adults.Conclusions: The results suggest that the concave pattern of body size variation across thelatitudinal cline may be at least partly genetically determined, and that although there isconsiderable geographic variation in mean body size of R. temporaria, this variation does notconform with Bergmann’s rule.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 7, no 5, 717-731 p.
Keyword [en]
age, amphibians, body size, cline, growth, latitude, temperature
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90160OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-90160DiVA: diva2:162411
Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Local Adaptation, Countergradient Variation and Ecological Genetics of Life-history Traits in Rana Temporaria
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Adaptation, Countergradient Variation and Ecological Genetics of Life-history Traits in Rana Temporaria
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main aim of this work was to identify local adaptation processes in amphibian populations, thereby improving the general understanding of genetics and mechanisms behind the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. Phenotypic and genetic variation in life-history traits was studied within and between populations common frog (Rana temporaria) populations along a 1600 km transect from southern Sweden to northern Finland.

Embryonic and larval development and growth was investigated both under field and laboratory conditions. The results suggest ample genetic diversity in larval life-history traits among Fennoscandian common frog populations. Larval developmental rate along the gradient has evolved a countergradient variation pattern of genotypes and phenotypes as indicated by the positive relationship between developmental rate and latitude under laboratory conditions and the lack of such a relationship in the field. The data suggest that this pattern has evolved because of time constraints due to decreasing length of growth season with latitude. Neither field-caught adults nor laboratory raised larvae displayed a linear latitudinal size cline as expected from the so called Bergmanns rule. Rather, size increased towards the mid-latitude populations and decreased thereafter, indicating that body size is a product of direct environmental induction or a trade-off with other life-history characters. Age and size at hatching showed no consistent latitudinal pattern, indicating that the embryonic stage is not as time constrained as the larval stage.

A large part of the variation in age and size at metamorphosis among populations was due to additive genetic effects. However, small, but significant maternal effects, mostly due to variation in egg size and non-additive genetic effects also contributed to among population variation. A comparison of divergence in presumably neutral molecular genetic markers (FST) and quantitative characters (QST) revealed that although both estimates of divergence were relatively high, estimates of QST was generally higher than those of FST, indicating that the genetic variation observed in larval traits is primarily a result of natural selection rather than genetic drift. Hence, our results reinforce the conclusion that intraspecific genetic heterogeneity in the young northern European ecosystems may be more widespread than previously anticipated

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2003. 33 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 818
Keyword
Ecology, amphibians, Bergmanns rule, body size clines, countergradient variation, developmental rate, FST, temperature, QST, Ekologi
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3332 (URN)91-554-5558-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-03-28, Zootissalen, Uppsala, 13:00
Opponent
Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06Bibliographically approved

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Laurila, Anssi

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