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Latitudinal divergence of common frog (Rana temporaria) life-history traits by natural selection: evidence for a comparison of molecular and quantitative genetic data
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
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2003 (English)In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 12, no 7, 1963-1978 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The relative roles of natural selection and direct environmental induction, as well as of natural selection and genetic drift, in creating clinal latitudinal variation in quantitative traits have seldom been assessed in vertebrates. To address these issues, we compared molecular and quantitative genetic differentiation between six common frog (Rana temporaria) populations along an approximately 1600 km long latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. The degree of population differentiation (QST approximately 0.81) in three heritable quantitative traits (age and size at metamorphosis, growth rate) exceeded that in eight (neutral) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.24). Isolation by distance was clear for both neutral markers and quantitative traits, but considerably stronger for one of the three quantitative traits than for neutral markers. QST estimates obtained using animals subjected to different rearing conditions (temperature and food treatments) revealed some environmental dependency in patterns of population divergence in quantitative traits, but in general, these effects were weak in comparison to overall patterns. Pairwise comparisons of FST and QST estimates across populations and treatments revealed that the degree of quantitative trait differentiation was not generally predictable from knowledge of that in molecular markers. In fact, both positive and negative correlations were observed depending on conditions where the quantitative genetic variability had been measured. All in all, the results suggest a very high degree of genetic subdivision both in neutral marker genes and genes coding quantitative traits across a relatively recently (< 9000 years) colonized environmental gradient. In particular, they give evidence for natural selection being the primary agent behind the observed latitudinal differentiation in quantitative traits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 12, no 7, 1963-1978 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90162DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01865.xPubMedID: 12803645OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-90162DiVA: diva2:162413
Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Local Adaptation, Countergradient Variation and Ecological Genetics of Life-history Traits in Rana Temporaria
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Adaptation, Countergradient Variation and Ecological Genetics of Life-history Traits in Rana Temporaria
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main aim of this work was to identify local adaptation processes in amphibian populations, thereby improving the general understanding of genetics and mechanisms behind the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. Phenotypic and genetic variation in life-history traits was studied within and between populations common frog (Rana temporaria) populations along a 1600 km transect from southern Sweden to northern Finland.

Embryonic and larval development and growth was investigated both under field and laboratory conditions. The results suggest ample genetic diversity in larval life-history traits among Fennoscandian common frog populations. Larval developmental rate along the gradient has evolved a countergradient variation pattern of genotypes and phenotypes as indicated by the positive relationship between developmental rate and latitude under laboratory conditions and the lack of such a relationship in the field. The data suggest that this pattern has evolved because of time constraints due to decreasing length of growth season with latitude. Neither field-caught adults nor laboratory raised larvae displayed a linear latitudinal size cline as expected from the so called Bergmanns rule. Rather, size increased towards the mid-latitude populations and decreased thereafter, indicating that body size is a product of direct environmental induction or a trade-off with other life-history characters. Age and size at hatching showed no consistent latitudinal pattern, indicating that the embryonic stage is not as time constrained as the larval stage.

A large part of the variation in age and size at metamorphosis among populations was due to additive genetic effects. However, small, but significant maternal effects, mostly due to variation in egg size and non-additive genetic effects also contributed to among population variation. A comparison of divergence in presumably neutral molecular genetic markers (FST) and quantitative characters (QST) revealed that although both estimates of divergence were relatively high, estimates of QST was generally higher than those of FST, indicating that the genetic variation observed in larval traits is primarily a result of natural selection rather than genetic drift. Hence, our results reinforce the conclusion that intraspecific genetic heterogeneity in the young northern European ecosystems may be more widespread than previously anticipated

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2003. 33 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 818
Keyword
Ecology, amphibians, Bergmanns rule, body size clines, countergradient variation, developmental rate, FST, temperature, QST, Ekologi
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3332 (URN)91-554-5558-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-03-28, Zootissalen, Uppsala, 13:00
Opponent
Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06Bibliographically approved

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