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The Stockholm Indoor Environment Questionnaire (SIEQ): A sociological based tool for assessment of indoor environment and health in dwellings
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
2004 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 14, no 1, 24-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim was to develop and validate a standardized questionnaire - the Stockholm Indoor Environment Questionnaire (SIEQ). The validation procedure was based on sociological principles and test procedures for validation. The indicators of indoor environment are air quality, thermal climate, noise, and illumination. The indicators of health are symptoms comprised in the sick building syndrome (SBS). The questionnaire also contains questions about the apartment, individual behavior, and personal factors. The everyday language describing the building and its function was first obtained by qualitative personal interviews, then by standardized questions. The interview questionnaire was transformed into a postal self-administered questionnaire. The reduction of the questionnaire was based on correlation analysis. It was found that to obtain a good validity, general questions are not sufficient, but specific question on perceptions and observations are needed. Good test-retest agreement was found both on an area level, building level, and individually. For each indicator, a set of questions are constructed and validated. SIEQ has been used in several studies, and the results are presented in graphic problem profiles. Reference data has been calculated for the Stockholm area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 14, no 1, 24-33 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90622DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00204.xPubMedID: 14756843OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-90622DiVA: diva2:163053
Available from: 2003-06-05 Created: 2003-06-05 Last updated: 2013-03-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A Sociological Approach to Indoor Environment in Dwellings: Risk factors for Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and Discomfort
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Sociological Approach to Indoor Environment in Dwellings: Risk factors for Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and Discomfort
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The principal aim was to study selected aspects of indoor environment in dwellings and their association with symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS). A validated questionnaire was developed specifically for residential indoor investigations, using sociological principles and test procedures. The questionnaire was mailed to 14,243 multi-family dwellings in Stockholm, selected by stratified random sampling. Females, subjects with a history of atopy, those above 65 y, and those in new buildings reported more symptoms. Subjects owning their own dwelling had less symptoms. A multiple regression model was developed, to identify residential buildings with a higher than expected occurrence of SBS. In total, 28.5% reported at least one sign of building dampness in their home (condensation on windows, humidity in the bathroom, mouldy odour, water leakage). All indicators of dampness were related to symptoms, even when adjusting for demographic data, and other building characteristics (OR=2.9-6.0). Associations between symptoms and other building data was evaluated in older houses, built before 1961. Subjects in older buildings with a mechanical ventilation system had fewer symptoms. Heating by electric radiators, and wood heating was associated with an increase of most types of symptoms (OR=1.2-5.0). Multiple sealing measures (OR=1.3), and major reconstruction (OR=1.1-1.9), was associated with an increase of symptoms. The effect of seasonal adapted ventilation (SAV) was studied in a small experimental study. A 20% reduction of ventilation flow from 0.5-0.8 ac/h to 0.4-0.5 ACH during the heating season increased the perception of poor indoor air quality in the dwelling in general, and in the bedroom. In conclusion, low building age, and building dampness in the dwelling are associated with SBS. In older houses, mechanical ventilation is beneficial. The thesis did not support the view that energy saving measures in general is an important risk factor for SBS, but major reconstruction and multiple sealing measures can be risk factor for symptoms. Reducing the outdoor ventilation flow below the current Swedish ventilation standard (0.5 ACH) may increase the perception of impaired air quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2003. 86 p.
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 0282-7476 ; 1276
Medicine, Indoor environment, Questionnaire, Atopy, Building age, Indoor air quality, Sick building syndrome (SBS), Validation, Dwelling, Energy conservation, Mechanical ventilation, Building dampness, Building reconstruction, Wood heating, Electric heating, Heat pump, Thermal Insulation, Sealing, Medicin
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3506 (URN)91-554-5677-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-09-05, MIC AULA (vid restaurang Rullan), Hus 6, Matematiskt Informationsteknologiskt Centrum vid Pollackbacken, Uppsala, 13:15
Available from: 2003-06-05 Created: 2003-06-05Bibliographically approved

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