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Hyporheic Exchange of Reactive and Conservative Solutes in Streams - Tracer Methodology and Model Interpretation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2003 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 278, no 1-4, 153-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A transient storage model is evaluated using results from a tracer experiment, where a conservative and a reactive tracer (3H and 51Cr(III)) were injected simultaneously and monitored in stream water and bed sediment. About 76% of the chromium was lost from the stream water on the reach 30 km downstream of the injection point directly after the passage of the pulse in the flowing water. The bed sediment hosted the main part of the retained chromium. The time to washout 75% of the maximum solute uptake in the sediment was ∼85 times longer for chromium than for tritium (i.e. ∼45 days). It was possible to describe the sediment-water exchange with a diffusive flux formulation that could be evaluated using tritium breakthrough curves in the stream water or the tritium inventory breakthrough curves in the sediment. This experiment revealed further that observations of chromium concentrations in the sediment were essential for the quantifying of sorption properties, as it was not possible to catch accurately the time scale of sorption within the duration of the breakthrough curves in the stream water. There was a clear need for a rate-limited description of the sorption of chromium in the sediment. We found that a first-order kinetic description of the sorption process could acceptably describe the breakthrough curves in both the stream water and the bed sediment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 278, no 1-4, 153-171 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90662DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00140-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-90662DiVA: diva2:163104
Available from: 2003-09-11 Created: 2003-09-11 Last updated: 2015-09-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effect of Hyporheic Exchange on Conservative and Reactive Solute Transport in Streams: Model Assessments Based on Tracer Tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Hyporheic Exchange on Conservative and Reactive Solute Transport in Streams: Model Assessments Based on Tracer Tests
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Understanding of the processes affecting solute transport in flowing water is important for the possibility to predict the evolution with time of polluted stream systems.

This thesis presents tracer experiment methodology and model developments for solute transport in streams, with special focus on retention processes and their effect on solute stream transport. Results are presented from a tracer experiment in the Säva Stream, Uppland County, Sweden, where both a conservative (3H as tritiated water) and a reactive (51Cr as trivalent chromium ion) tracer were injected simultaneously. The time and length scales of the experiment were prolonged compared to previous studies, which allowed for new critical tests of different model concepts.

It was found that the hyporheic exchange greatly affected the solute transport of both tracers. However, the retention of chromium was significantly more pronounced. About 76% of the injected chromium was lost from the stream water phase directly after the passage of the pulse 30 km downstream of the injection point. The inventory of chromium in the sediments indicated that the main part was retrieved in the hyporheic zone.

Both a diffusive and an advective hyporheic exchange model were developed and evaluated versus independent observations in the stream water and hyporheic zone. Analytical expressions for the central temporal moments of the breakthrough curve and semi-analytical solutions for the solute concentration in the Laplace domain were derived. Both models were found useful in representing the observations.

For the transport of the reactive solute, it was found essential to consider a kinetic sorption on to particulate matter in the hyporheic zone. The time needed for a wash-out of 75% of the maximum uptake in the hyporheic zone was found to be ~85 times longer for the reactive solute, compared to the conservative solute. Neglecting the sorption kinetics in the transport model yielded significant errors in the central temporal moments, which implied an incorrect description of the wash-out process from the hyporheic zone. Independent observations in the stream water and hyporheic zone as well as choice of evaluation method are essential for a correct interpretation of the processes.

A first attempt was also made to link model parameters such as the residence time in the hyporheic zone with measurable parameters of the stream. Such a relationship offers the possibility to generalize results for other streams and stream conditions. A generic study of the transport of an inert solute in the Lule River, Sweden, using this kind of relationship, indicated that the hyporheic exchange can have a large practical implication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2003. 57 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 866
Keyword
Earth sciences, conservative, hyporheic exchange, model, reactive, retention, solute, sorption kinetics, stream transport, temporal moments, tracer experiment, Geovetenskap
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sedimentology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3522 (URN)91-554-5689-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-10-03, Axel Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Uppsala, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2003-09-11 Created: 2003-09-11Bibliographically approved
2. On Distribution Coefficients in Aquatic Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Distribution Coefficients in Aquatic Systems
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, different types of chemical and physical distribution coefficients are identified, examined and used to describe the fate and transport pathways of substances in aquatic systems.

Observations from field experiments in streams with non-reactive and reactive tracers constituted the basis for development of an advection-dispersion model. Differences in the concentrations in both the water and sediment data for the tracers were due to the particle affinity of the reactive tracer. This difference in behaviour could be described by including an instantanous and a kinetically controlled sorption, which included distribution coefficients, in the water column (Kd) and in the streambed sediment (KB), respectively.

The results presented in this thesis also include a model for the lake characteristic concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM). The SPM-model can be used to describe mass flows of particles in lakes. The traditional distribution (or partition) coefficient Kd has been found to be unsuitable for interpretations of the particle association of solutes and also for distributing solute mass flows. Instead, the particulate or the dissolved fraction, PF and DF, defined as ratios of the particulate or dissolved concentration to the total concentration respectively, is recommended for mass-balance calculations. A new PF-model for phosphorus has meant that this part is no longer the most sensitive part of predicting concentrations of phosphorus in lakes using a more extensive dynamic model.

New methods have also been developed to describe the shape of lakes. Together with the mixing depth of lakes, the shape of a lake can be transformed into a distribution coefficient that physically determines the portion of a lake that is exposed, both areally and vertically, to continuously mixing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2002. 20 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 687
Keyword
Earth sciences, Distribution coefficient, lake, modelling, morphometry, stream, Geovetenskap
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-1777 (URN)91-554-5245-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2002-03-22, Axel Hambergsalen, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Available from: 2002-02-28 Created: 2002-02-28 Last updated: 2015-09-14Bibliographically approved

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