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Cross-Modulation of the pKa of Nucleobases in a Single-Stranded Hexameric-RNA Due to Tandem Electrostatic Nearest-Neighbor Interactions
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
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2003 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 125, no 33, 9948-9961 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pH titration studies (pH 6.7-12.1) in a series of dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric, pentameric, and hexameric oligo-RNA molecules [GpA (2a), GpC (3a), GpApC (5), GpA(1)pA(2)pC (6), GpA(1)pA(2)pA(3)pC (7), GpA(1)pA(2)pA(3)pA(4)pC (8)] have shown that the pK(a) of N(1)-H of 9-guaninyl could be measured not only from its own deltaH8G, but also from the aromatic marker protons of other constituent nucleobases. The relative chemical shift differences [Deltadelta((N)(-)(D))] between the protons in various nucleotide residues in the oligo-RNAs at the neutral (N) and deprotonated (D) states of the guanine moiety show that the generation of the 5'-(9-guanylate ion) in oligo-RNAs 2-8 reduces the stability of the stacked helical RNA conformation owing to the destabilizing anion(G(-))-pi/dipole(Im(delta)(-)) interaction. This destabilizing effect in the deprotonated RNA is, however, opposed by the electrostatically attractive atom-pisigma (major) as well as the anion(G(-))-pi/dipole(Py(delta)(+)) (minor) interactions. Our studies have demonstrated that the electrostatically repulsive anion(G(-))-pi/dipole(Im(delta)(-)) interaction propagates from the first to the third nucleobase quite strongly in the oligo-RNAs 6-8, causing destacking of the helix, and then its effect is gradually reduced, although it is clearly NMR detectable along the RNA chain. Thus, such specific generation of a charge at a single nucleobase moiety allows us to explore the relative strength of stacking within a single-stranded helix. The pK(a) of 5'-Gp residue from its own deltaH8G in the hexameric RNA 8 is found to be 9.76 +/- 0.01; it, however, varies from 9.65 +/- 0.01 to 10.5 +/- 0.07 along the RNA chain as measured from the other marker protons (H2, H8, H5, and H6) of 9-adeninyl and 1-cytosinyl residues. This nucleobase-dependent modulation of pK(a)s (DeltapK(a) +/- 0.9) of 9-guaninyl obtained from other nucleobases in the hexameric RNA 8 represents a difference of ca. 5.1 kJ mol(-)(1), which has been attributed to the variable strength of electrostatic interactions between the electron densities of the involved atoms in the offset stacked nucleobases as well as with that of the phosphates. The chemical implication of this variable pK(a) for guanin-9-yl deprotonation as obtained from all other marker protons of each nucleotide residue within a ssRNA molecule is that it enables us to experimentally understand the variation of the electronic microenvironment around each constituent nucleobase along the RNA chain in a stepwise manner with very high accuracy without having to make any assumption. This means that the pseudoaromaticity of neighboring 9-adeninyl and next-neighbor nucleobases within a polyanionic sugar-phosphate backbone of a ssRNA can vary from one case to another due to cross-modulation of an electronically coupled pi system by a neighboring nucleobase. This modulation may depend on the sequence context, spatial proximity of the negatively charged phosphates, as well as whether the offset stacking is ON or OFF. The net outcome of this electrostatic interaction between the neighbors is creation of new sequence-dependent hybrid nucleobases in an oligo- or polynucleotide whose properties are unlike the monomeric counterpart, which may have considerable biological implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 125, no 33, 9948-9961 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91150DOI: 10.1021/ja034651hPubMedID: 12914458OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-91150DiVA: diva2:163772
Available from: 2003-11-26 Created: 2003-11-26 Last updated: 2013-10-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Studies on the Non-covalent Interactions (Stereoelectronics, Stacking and Hydrogen Bonding) in the Self-assembly of DNA and RNA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies on the Non-covalent Interactions (Stereoelectronics, Stacking and Hydrogen Bonding) in the Self-assembly of DNA and RNA
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is based on ten publications (Papers I-X). The phosphodiester backbone makes DNA or RNA to behave as polyelectrolyte, the pentose sugar gives the flexibility, and the aglycones promote the self-assembly or the ligand-binding process. The hydrogen bonding, stacking, stereoelectronics and hydration are few of the important non-covalent forces dictating the self-assembly of DNA/RNA. The pH-dependent thermodynamics clearly show (Papers I and II) that a change of the electronic character of aglycone modulates the conformation of the sugar moiety by the tunable interplay of stereoelectronic anomeric and gauche effects, which are further transmitted to steer the sugar-phosphate backbone conformation in a cooperative manner. 3'-anthraniloyl adenosine (a mimic of 3'-teminal CCAOH of the aminoacyl-tRNAPhe) binds to EF-Tu*GTP in preference over 2'-anthraniloyl adenosine, thereby showing (Paper III) that the 2’-endo sugar conformation is a more suitable mimic of the transition state geometry than the 3’-endo conformation in discriminating between correctly and incorrectly charged aminoacyl-tRNAPhe by EF-Tu during protein synthesis. The presence of 2'-OH in RNA distinguishes it from DNA both functionally as well as structurally. This work (Paper IV) provides straightforward NMR evidence to show that the 2'-OH is intramolecularly hydrogen bonded with the vicinal 3'-oxygen, and the exposure of the 3'-phosphate of the ribonucleotides to the bulk water determines the availability of the bound water around the vicinal 2'-OH, which then can play various functional role through inter- or intramolecular interactions. The pH-dependent 1H NMR study with nicotinamide derivatives demonstrates (Paper V) that the cascade of intramolecular cation (pyridinium)-π(phenyl)-CH(methyl) interaction in edge-to-face geometry is responsible for perturbing the pKa of the pyridine-nitrogen as well as for the modulation of the aromatic character of the neighboring phenyl moiety, which is also supported by the T1 relaxation studies and ab initio calculations. It has been found (Papers VI-IX) that the variable intramolecular electrostatic interaction between electronically coupled nearest neighbor nucleobases (steered by their respective microenvironments) can modulate their respective pseudoaromatic characters. The net result of this pseudoaromatic cross-modulation is the creation of a unique set of aglycones in an oligo or polynucleotide, whose physico-chemical properties are completely dependent upon the propensity and geometry of the nearest neighbor interactions (extended genetic code). The propagation of the interplay of these electrostatic interactions across the hexameric ssDNA chain is considerably less favoured (effectively up to the fourth nucleobase) compared to that of the isosequential ssRNA (up to the sixth nucleobase). The dissection of the relative strength of basepairing and stacking in a duplex shows that stability of DNA-DNA duplex weakens over the corresponding RNA-RNA duplexes with the increasing content of A-T/U base pairs, while the strength of stacking of A-T rich DNA-DNA duplex increases in comparison with A-U rich sequence in RNA-RNA duplexes (Paper X).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2003. 54 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 914
Keyword
Bioorganic chemistry, nucleic acids, NMR, Stereoelectronic effects, Hydrogen Bonding, Stacking, Bioorganisk kemi
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3825 (URN)91-554-5821-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-12-19, B7:113a, Floor 1, Biomedical Centre, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2003-11-26 Created: 2003-11-26Bibliographically approved
2. Some Aspects of Physicochemical Properties of DNA and RNA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Some Aspects of Physicochemical Properties of DNA and RNA
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is based on nine research publications (I – IX) on structure and reactivity of RNA vis-à-vis DNA. The DNA and RNA are made of flexible pentose sugar units, polyelectrolytic phosphodiester backbone, and heterocyclic nucleobases. DNA stores our genetic code, whereas RNA is involved both in protein biosynthesis and catalysis. Various ligand-binding and recognition properties of DNA/RNA are mediated through inter- and intra-molecular H-bonding and stacking interactions, beside hydration, van der Waal and London dispersion forces. In this work the pH dependant chemical shift, pKa values of 2'-OH group as well as those the nucleobases in different sequence context, alkaline hydrolysis of the internucleotidic phosphodiester bonds and analysis of NOESY footprints along with NMR constrained molecular dynamics simulation were used as tools to explore and understand the physico-chemical behavior of various nucleic acid sequences, and the forces involved in their self-assembly process. Papers I – II showed that the ionization of 2'-OH group is nucleobase-dependant. Paper III showed that the chemical characters of internucleotidic phosphate are non-identical in RNA compared to that of DNA. Papers IV – VI show that variable intramolecular electrostatic interactions between electronically coupled nearest neighbor nucleobases in a ssRNA can modulate their respective pseudoaromatic character, and result in creation of a unique set of aglycons with unique properties depending on propensity and geometry of nearest neighbor interaction. Paper VII showed that the cross-modulation of the pseudoaromatic character of nucleobases by the nearest neighbor is sequence-dependant in nature in oligonucleotides. Paper VIII showed that the purine-rich hexameric ssDNA and ssRNA retain the right-handed helical structure (B-type in ssDNA and A-type in ssRNA) in the single-stranded form even in absence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The directionality of stacking geometry however differs in ssDNA compared to ssRNA. In ssDNA the relatively electron-rich imidazole stacks above the electron-deficient pyrimidine in the 5' to 3' direction, in contradistinction, the pyrimidine stacks above the imidazole in the 5' to 3' direction in ssRNA. Paper IX showed that the pKa values of the nucleobases in monomeric nucleotides can be used to show that a RNA-RNA duplex is more stable than a DNA-DNA duplex. The dissection of the relative strength of base-pairing and stacking showed that the relative contribution of former compared to that of the latter in an RNA-RNA over the corresponding DNA-DNA duplexes decreases with the increasing content of A-T/U base pairs in a sequence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 74 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 164
Keyword
Bioorganic chemistry, nucleic acids, hydrogen-bonding, stacking, single-stranded, NMR, molecular dynamics, Bioorganisk kemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6741 (URN)91-554-6518-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-04-29, Room C10301 (floor 3), Biomedical Center, Uppsala, 12:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-04-07 Created: 2006-04-07 Last updated: 2013-10-25Bibliographically approved

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