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Flycatcher song in allopatry and sympatry: convergence, divergence and reinforcement
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology.
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2004 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 17, no 2, 227-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The theory of reinforcement predicts that natural selection against the production of unfit hybrids favours traits that increase assortative mating. Whether culturally inherited traits, such as bird song, can increase assortative mating by reinforcement is largely unknown. We compared songs of pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared flycatchers (F. albicollis) from two hybrid zones of different ages with songs from allopatric populations. Previously, a character divergence in male plumage traits has been shown to reinforce premating isolation in sympatric flycatchers. In contrast, we find that the song of the pied flycatcher has converged towards that of the collared flycatcher (mixed singing). However, a corresponding divergence in the collared flycatcher shows that the species differences in song characters are maintained in sympatry. Genetic analyses suggest that mixed song is not caused by introgression from the collared flycatcher, but rather due to heterospecific copying. Circumstantial evidence suggests that mixed song may increase the rate of maladaptive hybridization. In the oldest hybrid zone where reinforcement on plumage traits is most pronounced, the frequency of mixed singing and hybridization is also lowest. Thus, we suggest that reinforcement has reduced the frequency of mixed singing in the pied flycatcher and caused a divergence in the song of the collared flycatcher. Whether a culturally inherited trait promotes or opposes speciation in sympatry may depend on its plasticity. The degree of plasticity may be genetically determined and accordingly under selection by reinforcement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 17, no 2, 227-237 p.
National Category
Developmental Biology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91236DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2003.00682.xPubMedID: 15009256OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-91236DiVA: diva2:163897
Available from: 2004-01-07 Created: 2004-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sexual Signals and Speciation: A Study of the Pied and Collared Flycatcher
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sexual Signals and Speciation: A Study of the Pied and Collared Flycatcher
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Speciation is the process in which reproductive barriers evolve between populations. In this thesis I examine how sexual signals contribute to the maintenance, reinforcement or breakdown of reproductive barriers.

Male pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared flycatchers (F. albicollis) differ in song and plumage traits. However, where the two species coexist, several pied flycatchers sing a song resembling the collared flycatcher (mixed song). Mixed song is not caused by introgression from the collared flycatcher but is due to heterospecific copying. Mixed song provokes aggressive behaviour in collared flycatcher males and leads to heterospecific pairing and maladaptive hybridization.

The species differences in song were found to be larger in an old than a young hybrid zone. This was due to a reduction in the frequency of mixed song in the pied flycatcher and a divergence in the song of the collared flycatcher. Apparently, mixed song causes maladaptive hybridization, which over time leads to reinforcement of reproductive barriers by a song divergence.

Previous studies have shown that a character displacement in male plumage traits reinforces species barriers. Hence both plumage and song divergence reduce the incidence of hybridization. The evolution of male plumage traits has been so rapid, or selection has been so strong that rapidly evolving molecular markers are unable to trace it.

Hybrid females mate with a male of the same species as their father. Previous studies have shown that females use male plumage traits controlled by genes linked to the sex chromosomes (the Z) in species recognition. An association between preference and a sex-linked trait through the paternal line may render reinforcement of reproductive barriers more likely.

In conclusion, sexual signals are affected by species interactions that cause breakdown or reinforcement of reproductive barriers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 31 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 922
Keyword
Biology, Speciation, Sexual signals, Hybridization, Reinforcement, Song, Female preference, Sex-linkage, Biologi
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3916 (URN)91-554-5843-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-01-31, Zoologen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00
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Available from: 2004-01-07 Created: 2004-01-07Bibliographically approved

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Qvarnström, Anna

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