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Venom gland and reservoir morphology in cynipoid wasps
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
2006 (English)In: Arthropod structure & development, ISSN 1467-8039, E-ISSN 1873-5495, Vol. 35, no 2, 127-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The venom apparatus morphology was examined in 25 species of Cynipoidea, representing 11 parasitoid taxa; 12 gall inducers and two inquilines. Typically the venom apparatus consists of an oval or bilobed reservoir connected to the ovipositor apparatus by a very short venom duct at the anterior end and to a single elongate unbranched venom gland at or near its posterior end. The Dufour's gland was not found in any of the examined species. The elongate unbranched venom gland and the absence of the Dufour's gland are putative cynipoid synapomorphies. The shape and size of especially the venom reservoir were found to vary considerably within the Cynipoidea. It is typically less prominent in the parasitoid taxa than in the gall inducers. Exceptions include the poppy gallers Barbotinia and Aylax, in which the venom reservoirs were remarkably small and in the rose galler Diplolepis, where only a rudimentary venom apparatus was found. Possible functional and phylogenetic implications of cynipoid venom apparatus features are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 35, no 2, 127-136 p.
Keyword [en]
gall inducer, inquiline, ovipositor apparatus, parasitoid, venom apparatus
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91311DOI: 10.1016/j.asd.2006.05.002ISI: 000239913000006PubMedID: 18089065OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-91311DiVA: diva2:163999
Available from: 2004-02-11 Created: 2004-02-11 Last updated: 2011-06-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. From Parasitoids to Gall Inducers and Inquilines: Morphological Evolution in Cynipoid Wasps
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Parasitoids to Gall Inducers and Inquilines: Morphological Evolution in Cynipoid Wasps
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the large lineages of parasitic wasps, the Cynipoidea, exhibits three distinctly different life modes. Slightly more than half of the about 3000 species are parasitoids in insect larvae, whereas the remaining species are associated with plants, either as gall inducers or as inquilines (guests feeding on plant tissue in galls). The main focus of this thesis has been to identify morphological changes associated with the shifts between life modes. Particular attention was paid to structures believed to be important in gall initiation. Comparative anatomical studies of the egg, larva and venom apparatus were performed, including representatives of parasitoids, gall inducers and inquilines. Examination of gross morphology and ultrastructure revealed that the eggs of the gall inducers are larger and surrounded by a thicker shell than the parasitoid eggs. These differences may be related to the fact that the gall inducer egg contains sufficient egg yolk for the embryo during the entire egg period, whereas the parasitoid egg often absorbs nutrients through the eggshell. Furthermore, the gall inducer egg is probably more exposed to desiccation and therefore a thicker and more resistant eggshell is crucial. Comparing the terminal-instar larvae of about 30 species of parasitoids, gall inducers and inquilines, extensive morphological variation was found, particularly in the head and mouthpart features. The variation was summarized in 33 morphological and one life-history character and parsimony analyses were performed. The resulting phylogenetic estimates were largely in accordance with previous analyses of adult morphology and molecular data. The larval data point to a single origin of the inquilines, in agreement with adult morphology but in conflict with molecular data. The venom apparatus was found to be quite uniform in structure among a sample of 25 species of cynipoid species. It consists of a very short venom duct, a reservoir and a single unbranched venom gland. With few exceptions, the venom apparatus is conspicuously larger relative to the female metasoma in the gall inhabiting species than in the parasitoids. We found little evidence of anatomical structures that could facilitate chemical communication between the gall-inducer embryo and the surrounding plant tissue through the thick eggshell. On the other hand, the enormous venom glands and reservoirs, which are apparently not used for defence, suggest that the adult female plays a significant role in gall induction by injecting secretions into the host plant when laying eggs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 41 p.
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 932
Biology, gall inducer, parasitoid, inquiline, gall induction, morphology, Biologi
National Category
Biological Sciences
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3975 (URN)91-554-5861-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-03-06, Zootissalen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2004-02-11 Created: 2004-02-11 Last updated: 2009-04-02Bibliographically approved

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