Venom gland and reservoir morphology in cynipoid wasps
2006 (English)In: Arthropod structure & development, ISSN 1467-8039, E-ISSN 1873-5495, Vol. 35, no 2, 127-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The venom apparatus morphology was examined in 25 species of Cynipoidea, representing 11 parasitoid taxa; 12 gall inducers and two inquilines. Typically the venom apparatus consists of an oval or bilobed reservoir connected to the ovipositor apparatus by a very short venom duct at the anterior end and to a single elongate unbranched venom gland at or near its posterior end. The Dufour's gland was not found in any of the examined species. The elongate unbranched venom gland and the absence of the Dufour's gland are putative cynipoid synapomorphies. The shape and size of especially the venom reservoir were found to vary considerably within the Cynipoidea. It is typically less prominent in the parasitoid taxa than in the gall inducers. Exceptions include the poppy gallers Barbotinia and Aylax, in which the venom reservoirs were remarkably small and in the rose galler Diplolepis, where only a rudimentary venom apparatus was found. Possible functional and phylogenetic implications of cynipoid venom apparatus features are discussed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 35, no 2, 127-136 p.
gall inducer, inquiline, ovipositor apparatus, parasitoid, venom apparatus
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91311DOI: 10.1016/j.asd.2006.05.002ISI: 000239913000006PubMedID: 18089065OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-91311DiVA: diva2:163999