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Pharmacological characterization of loss of function mutations of the human melanocortin 1 receptor that are associated with red hair
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
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2004 (English)In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, ISSN 0022-202X, E-ISSN 1523-1747, Vol. 123, no 5, 917-923 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variation in skin color is the major host risk factor for melanoma and other forms of skin cancer. Individuals with red hair show an increased ratio of phaeomelanin to eumelanin in both hair and skin. This ratio is regulated by the melanocortin (MC) 1 receptor. There are several common point mutations in the human MC1 receptor that are overrepresented in North European red-heads, and in individuals with pale skin. In order to determine the functional significance of these mutations, we expressed the Asp84Glu, Val92Met, Arg163Gln, and Asp294His variants of the human MC1 receptors in eukaryotic cells and determined their ability to bind alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) peptides and increase intracellular cAMP. The mutants Asp84Glu and Asp294His showed a much lower response to alpha-MSH in cAMP and a slightly impaired ability to bind alpha-MSH, and the Val92Met mutant bound alpha-MSH with 100-fold lower affinity as compared with the wild-type. The Arg163Gln variant, widely found in some Asian populations, reached normal level of cAMP response but had just slightly lower potency for alpha-MSH in binding and second messenger studies. The results provide important pharmacological characterization of common MC1 receptor variants in various world populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 123, no 5, 917-923 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91576DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.23444.xPubMedID: 15482480OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-91576DiVA: diva2:164352
Available from: 2004-04-23 Created: 2004-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cloning, Expression, Pharmacological Characterization and Anatomical Distribution of Melanocortin Receptors in an Evolutionary Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cloning, Expression, Pharmacological Characterization and Anatomical Distribution of Melanocortin Receptors in an Evolutionary Perspective
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The melanocortin (MC) receptors are G-protein coupled receptors thatparticipate in several important physiological functions such as the regulation of the energy balance. This thesis focuses on the evolutionary aspect of the MC receptors and their pharmacology.

One MC4 receptor and two MC5 receptor subtypes were found in a teleost fish, zebrafish. This indicates that the MC receptor subtypes arose very early in vertebrate evolution. Important pharmacological and functional properties, as well as gene structure and syntenic relationships have been highly conserved over a period of more than 400 million years implying that these receptors participate in vital physiological functions. Moreover, we found a MC4 receptor from a shark, spiny dogfish that represents the most distant MC receptor gene cloned to date. We also characterized the pharmacology of a MC4 receptor in goldfish. The conserved central expression pattern and physiological role in regulation of food intake of the MC4 receptor suggests that neuronal pathways of the melanocortin system may be important for regulation of energy homeostasis in most vertebrates. We determined the chromosomal position of the chicken MC receptors genes and found conserved synteny of the MC2, MC5, and MC4 receptor genes. These results suggest that there exist a clustering of these genes that is ancient. Analysis of conserved synteny with mammalian genomes and paralogon segments prompted us to predict an ancestral gene organization that may explain how this family has been formed through both local duplication and tetraploidization processes.

There are several common point mutations in the human MC1 receptor that are over represented in North European red-heads, and in individuals with pale skin. We pharmacologically characterised four naturally occurring human MC1 receptor variants providing molecular explanation to the respective phenotype.

The MC receptor subtypes have highly diverse physiological functions despite having relative high similarities in their primary structure. Our studies on the structural and functional properties of the MC receptor subtypes have provided insight into the molecular mechanism of how the specification of these receptors may have occurred.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 50 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 0282-7476 ; 1338
Keyword
Pharmacology, evolution, melanocortin, MSH, pharmacology, genome duplication, tetraploidization, zebrafish, spiny dogfish, chicken, GPCR, polymorphism, pigmentation, Farmakologi
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4149 (URN)91-554-5928-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-05-14, B21, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15
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Available from: 2004-04-23 Created: 2004-04-23Bibliographically approved

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Schiöth, Helgi B.

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