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A Tomographic Method for Verification of the Integrity of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies - II: Experimental Investigation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3136-5665
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
2001 (English)In: Nuclear Technology, ISSN 0029-5450, Vol. 135, no 2, 146-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A tomographic method for verification of the integrity of used light water reactor fuel has been experimentally investigated. The method utilizes emitted gamma rays from fission products in the fuel rods. The radiation field is recorded in a large number of positions relative to the assembly, whereby the source distribution is reconstructed using a special-purpose reconstruction code.

An 8 × 8 boiling water reactor fuel assembly has been measured at the Swedish interim storage (CLAB), using installed gamma-scanning equipment modified for the purpose of tomography. The equipment allows the mapping of the radiation field around a fuel assembly with the aid of a germanium detector fitted with a collimator with a vertical slit. Two gamma-ray energies were recorded: 662 keV (137Cs) and 1274 keV (154Eu). The intensities measured in 2520 detector positions were used as input for the tomographic reconstruction code. The results agreed very well with simulations and significantly revealed a position containing a water channel in the central part of the assembly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 135, no 2, 146-153 p.
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Research subject
Applied Nuclear Physics; Physics with specialization in Applied Nuclear Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91653OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-91653DiVA: diva2:164455
Available from: 2004-04-21 Created: 2004-04-21 Last updated: 2017-01-21
In thesis
1. A Tomographic Measurement Technique for Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Assemblies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Tomographic Measurement Technique for Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Assemblies
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The fuel assemblies used at the Swedish nuclear power plants contain typically between 100 and 300 fuel rods. An experimental technique has been demanded for determining the relative activities of specific isotopes in individual fuel rods without dismantling the assemblies. The purpose is to validate production codes, which requires an experimental relative accuracy of <2 % (1 σ).

Therefore, a new, non-destructive tomographic measurement technique for irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies has been developed. The technique includes two main steps: (1) the gamma-ray flux distribution around the assembly is recorded, and (2) the interior gamma-ray source distribution in the assembly is reconstructed. The use of detailed gamma-ray transport calculations in the reconstruction procedure enables accurate determination of the relative rod-by-rod source distribution.

To investigate the accuracy achievable, laboratory equipment has been constructed, including a fuel model with a well-known distribution of 137Cs. Furthermore, an instrument has been constructed and built for in-pool measurements on irradiated fuel assemblies at nuclear power plants.

Using the laboratory equipment, a relative accuracy of 1.2 % was obtained (1 σ). The measurements on irradiated fuel resulted in a repeatability of 0.8 %, showing the accuracy that can be achieved using this instrument. The agreement between rod-by-rod data obtained in calculations using the POLCA–7 production code and measured data was 3.1 % (1 σ).

Additionally, there is a safeguards interest in the tomographic technique for verifying that no fissile material has been diverted from fuel assemblies, i.e. that no fuel rods have been removed or replaced. The applicability has been demonstrated in a measurement on a spent fuel assembly. Furthermore, detection of both the removal of a rod as well as the replacement with a non-active rod has been investigated in detail and quantitatively established using the laboratory equipment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 85 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 967
Keyword
Nuclear physics, tomography, nuclear fuel, SPECT, core physics, validation, pin power, safeguards, partial-defect verification, Kärnfysik
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4227 (URN)91-554-5944-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-05-14, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Polacksbacken, Uppsala, 09:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-04-21 Created: 2004-04-21Bibliographically approved

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Jacobsson, StaffanJansson, Peter

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