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Sensory qualities of whole wheat pan bread: influence of farming system, milling and baking technique
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
2004 (English)In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 39, no 1, 67-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic wheat production has increased in Sweden, and there is a need to describe the quality of the final product. To optimize utilization of alternatively grown wheat for human consumption, it is necessary to understand the effects of crop and processing variation on the sensory qualities of the final product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of farming systems, milling technique, and variation in formulation on the sensory attributes of whole wheat pan bread. Six samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum, variety Kosack) from field trials, three grown in conventional farming systems and three in organic farming systems (biodynamic and ecological), were roller- and stone-milled, respectively. Breads were baked according to an experimental design in which two levels of flour and two levels of kneading were also included. Sensory analysis, achieved through a descriptive profiling test, was conducted with eight trained assessors using 19 sensory attributes for 48 different bread types in two replicates. Image analysis was used to establish the slice area of the breads. Milling technique had a greater impact on the sensory qualities of bread and on the slice area than did farming system and baking technique. Conventional wheat had lower protein and ash contents, but higher volume weight than did the organic wheat. Damaged starch, extensographic values (Rm,E) and farinographic values for water absorption, dough development time and dough stability were higher for roller-milled samples than for the stone-milled. Whole meal breads of roller-milled wheat were dominated by sweetness, juiciness and compactness attributes, whereas those from stone-milled wheat were characterized by saltiness, deformity and roasted cereal attributes. The six wheat samples revealed that variation in breads' sensory qualities was larger for the three organic samples than for the three conventional samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 39, no 1, 67-84 p.
Keyword [en]
Sensory qualities of bread; Sustainable agriculture; Stone-milling; Organic wheat
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92088DOI: 10.1016/S0733-5210(03)00067-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-92088DiVA: diva2:165042
Available from: 2004-09-22 Created: 2004-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sensory Quality and Consumer Perception of Wheat Bread: Towards Sustainable Production and Consumption. Effects of Farming System, Year, Technology, Information and Values
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensory Quality and Consumer Perception of Wheat Bread: Towards Sustainable Production and Consumption. Effects of Farming System, Year, Technology, Information and Values
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to study the effect of production systems aimed at sustainability on product quality and of sensory and non-sensory factors on product acceptance – the effect of farming system, year, milling and baking techniques on the sensory qualities of wheat bread as a model product was investigated using a descriptive test, and the effect of information and values on liking of bread using consumer tests.

Whole wheat and white breads were baked with wheat grown in six lots in established conventional and organic farming systems in field trails, in two subsequent years for the white bread.

Milling technique influenced flours’ rheology and had greater impact on the sensory qualities of whole wheat bread and on the slice area than did farming system and baking technique. Bread baked with roller-milled wheat was characterized by sweetness, juiciness, compactness and smaller slice area than bread baked with stone-milled wheat, which was characterized by saltiness, deformity and roasted cereals.

The effect of year on the white bread was greater than the effect of farming system or recipe modification. Bread baked with wheat harvested in 1999 had significantly lower intensities of crumb attributes such as smoothness, juiciness and elasticity, but higher rancid flavour, springiness, compressibility, mastication resistance than bread baked with wheat harvested in 2000. Bread baked with conventional flour had significantly higher juiciness and elasticity than organic bread.

Image analysis did not show differences in slice area between bread baked with conventionally and organically grown wheat harvested in 1999 compared with 2000. Information affected liking in relation to the type of provided information. Information on organic origin enhanced most liking of bread, particularly for the less liked samples and frequent consumers of organic food. Significantly different values and different specific liking of breads were found among consumer segments. Results linked values and age with “taste”.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 86 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 0282-7492 ; 139
Keyword
Domestic sciences, Product quality, Production quality, Sustainability, Organic farming, Wheat, Organic Food, Bread, Milling, Breadmaking, Sensory analysis, Consumers, Information, Values, Food acceptance, Hushållsvetenskap
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4529 (URN)91-554-6029-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-10-15, R 107, Institutionen för hushållsvetenskap, Trädgårdsgatan 14, Uppsala, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-09-22 Created: 2004-09-22Bibliographically approved

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Kihlberg, Iwona

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