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Holocene dynamics of the southern boreal forest in Sweden
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
2005 (English)In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 15, no 6, 858-872 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Holocene vegetation dynamics in the ecotone between the boreo-nemoral and boreal forest were reconstructed from sediment cores of two small lakes using pollen and macrofossil analyses. Competition, migration and changing climate parameters determine species dynamics in the ecotone. The spread of Picea abies was the most important event in the vegetation history of the region, probably shaping the present distribution limits of Corylus avellana, Tilia cordata and Quercus robur through competitive exclusion. The expansion of Picea abies is well documented by abundant macrofossil finds at one of the lakes, mirroring the rise in pollen percentage and confirming the presence of the tree before Picea abies pollen frequencies reached 1%. No Picea abies macrofossils were encountered before pollen was regularly found. Changing vegetation composition through migration affects both sites at different times, while a shift in atmospheric circulation pattern may be responsible for a concordant change in vegetation composition at both sites around 5700 cal. BP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 15, no 6, 858-872 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92260DOI: 10.1191/0959683605hl859raOAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-92260DiVA: diva2:165270
Available from: 2004-10-07 Created: 2004-10-07 Last updated: 2013-05-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Holocene Spread of Spruce in Scandinavia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Holocene Spread of Spruce in Scandinavia
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Holocene spread of Picea abies in Scandinavia provides an excellent opportunity for detailed study of the dynamics of tree spread and population expansion. Early- and mid-Holocene macrofossil evidence for the presence of Picea abies in Scandinavia has questioned traditional interpretations of the timing and direction of its spread. This study aims to determine the pattern of the spread of Picea abies in Scandinavia from pollen and other data, to evaluate the significance of possible early outpost populations and to deduce possible factors that influenced the spread and population expansion of Picea abies in Scandinavia.

Palaeoecological investigations were carried out on the sediments of four small lakes in central Sweden to gain detailed insight into the dynamics of the spread. Holocene pollen diagrams with independent dating control were collected from Fennoscandia and adjacent areas to compare the timing of selected features of the Picea abies pollen curve. Computer models were used to test possible scenarios for the spread and Picea abies population expansion.

Picea abies entered the Scandinavian peninsula from the east at different times and by different pathways. Early-Holocene outposts can be discerned in pollen records from northwest Russia, eastern and northeastern Finland for the time before 9000 cal. BP. Pollen records from Sweden and Norway indicate small Picea abies populations after 8000 cal. BP. The mid to late-Holocene spread, which superficially resembles a front-like pattern, may in fact represent a wave of expanding populations. Disturbance through fire and human activity did not significantly influence the pattern of the spread. Changing climate parameters, slow adaptation and gene flow through seeds and pollen have to be considered as possible explanations for the late spread of the tree. Population dynamics and propagule pressure are likely to be important factors that shaped the spread of Picea abies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 46 p.
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 1027
Quaternary geology, Picea abies, pollen analyses, tree migration, population dynamics, Kvartärgeologi
National Category
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4623 (URN)91-554-6064-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-10-29, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00
Available from: 2004-10-07 Created: 2004-10-07Bibliographically approved

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