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Species recognition in the truffle genus Tuber: the synonyms Tuber aestivum and Tuber uncinatum
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
2005 (English)In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 7, no 10, 1535-1546 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The two morphologically similar truffles Tuber aestivum and T. uncinatum have caused confusion because T. uncinatum is regarded by different authors, as either a distinct species, variety, subspecies, or synonym of T. aestivum. A clarification of the relationship between the two truffles would help both conservation biology and cultivation. We aimed both to test the reliability of the only quantitative morphological character used to distinguish the two taxa, i.e. the height of the spore reticulum, and to compare sequences of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Our study included 117 fruit bodies of T. aestivum and T. uncinatum, originating from eight European countries. The results showed that the spore reticulum height is not diagnostic. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences from 81 fruit bodies and an additional 32 sequences from GenBank showed that T. aestivum and T. uncinatum were intermingled in one highly supported (100% bootstrap) monophyletic clade, separate from its sister species Tuber mesentericum. We conclude that T. aestivum and T. uncinatum are synonyms and the species should be named T. aestivum, as the oldest name has priority. For traders, T. aestivum syn. T. uncinatum should be used until conformity has been reached.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 7, no 10, 1535-1546 p.
National Category
Biological Systematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92400DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00837.xPubMedID: 16156727OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-92400DiVA: diva2:165457
Available from: 2004-11-05 Created: 2004-11-05 Last updated: 2014-09-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Black Truffles of Sweden: Systematics, Population Studies, Ecology and Cultivation of Tuber aestivum syn. T. uncinatum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Black Truffles of Sweden: Systematics, Population Studies, Ecology and Cultivation of Tuber aestivum syn. T. uncinatum
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tuber aestivum is an ectomycorrhizal ascomycete with underground fruit bodies. It is an economically important species, but has been regarded as endangered in Sweden. My inventory has increased the number of reported localities from 3 to 31.

It has long been debated whether T. aestivum and T. uncinatum are conspecific or not, so a clarification would help conservation biology and cultivation. My study included 117 fruit bodies of both taxa from 8 countries. The phylogenetic (ITS) and microscopic analyses showed that the two taxa were synonyms and that the spore reticulum height, used to separate the taxa, is not diagnostic. T. aestivum was clearly different from T. mesentericum, which I reported new to Sweden.

The Gotland T. aestivum population was genetically distinct (RAPD) from other European specimens. The genetic variation suggested sexual reproduction. The habitat of 18 T. aestivum sites on Gotland were analysed and compared with data from France. No striking functional differences in soil chemistry were found, so a possible T. aestivum ecotype on Gotland would rather be an adaptation to the colder and drier climate. Selecting local T. aestivum inoculum for truffle orchards in Northern Europe could be important for successful truffle production.

In 1999, 10 experimental truffle orchards with a total of 240 oak and hazel seedlings were established on Gotland, and as a result of this project 3000 commercial oak seedlings were planted in 2000-2001. In 2004, T. aestivum mycorrhiza was still present in all of the 22 orchards studied on Gotland, some in soils different from natural habitats. In addition, the project has also generated a truffle cultivation association, a truffle company, truffle dog breeding and export of T. aestivum to France.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 54 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 1043
Keyword
Biology, Tuber aestivum, Tuber uncinatum, Tuber mesentericum, ITS, spore reticulum, truffle cultivation, island ecology, populations, morphology, ecotype, Quercus robur, Biologi
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4675 (URN)91-554-6099-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-11-26, Friesalen, Evolutionsbiologiskt Centrum, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-05 Created: 2004-11-05 Last updated: 2009-04-02Bibliographically approved

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Wedén, ChristinaTibell, Leif

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