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α-MSH dependent regulation of neural stem cell proliferation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Cellular Neurobiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92447OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-92447DiVA: diva2:165525
Available from: 2004-11-25 Created: 2004-11-25 Last updated: 2011-01-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hormonal Regulation of Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Fate Determination
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hormonal Regulation of Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Fate Determination
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Stem cells have the capacity for both self renewal, and to form all cell types in the body. Interestingly, so called neural stem cells (NSCs) are found in the adult human brain, which is of significance both out of a developmental perspective and from a clinical point of view. At the present moment, the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and fate determination is not completely understood.

The overall aim of this thesis was to study the mechanisms that regulate NSC proliferation and fate determination in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the roles of the female sex hormone estrogen and the testosterone analogue nandrolone, as well as the melanocortin α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), were analyzed in this context. Also, the breast cancer susceptibility gene one (BRCA-1), was studied in the brain with emphasis on regions containing NSCs.

Our findings show that estrogen and nandrolone have similar effects on NSCs; both decreased NSC proliferation and increased neurogenesis. Estrogen's ability to reduce proliferation was due to increased levels of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinases. In contrast, no change in p21 was observed in the case of nandrolone, indicating differential regulation. Adult rats subjected to nandrolone injections had 30% reduced NSC proliferation in the dentate gyrus, indicating profound effects on NSCs in vivo.

The melanocortin α-MSH acted as a mitogen by increasing levels of cyclinD1 and retinoblastoma protein; as a result NSC proliferation was doubled.

Finally, BRCA-1 is expressed while NSCs proliferate, but is drastically down regulated upon differentiation, indicating that BRCA-1 could be used as a possible NSC marker.

In summary, in this thesis estrogen and nandrolone were identified as NSC regulators which decrease proliferation and positively influence neurogenesis. Also, we have identified the hormone α-MSH as a NSC mitogen, and BRCA-1 as a possible NSC marker.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 63 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 0282-7476 ; 1394
Keyword
Neurosciences, Neural stem cell, Proliferation, Fate determination, Hormones, Anabolic androgenic steroids, Neurovetenskap
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4694 (URN)91-554-6111-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-12-16, B21, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-25 Created: 2004-11-25Bibliographically approved

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