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Chemical abundance patterns - fingerprints of nucleosynthesis in the first stars
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics.
2001 In: Astronomy & Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, Vol. 379, 461-481 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 379, 461-481 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92465OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-92465DiVA: diva2:165552
Available from: 2004-11-12 Created: 2004-11-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Stochastic Chemical Evolution: A Study of Scatter in Relative Elemental Abundances in Extremely Metal-poor Stars
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stochastic Chemical Evolution: A Study of Scatter in Relative Elemental Abundances in Extremely Metal-poor Stars
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Stokastisk grundämnestillväxt : En studie av spridningen i relativa grundämnesförekomster i extremt metallfattiga stjärnor
Abstract [en]

Chemical evolution addresses the problem of the formation of the chemical elements and their evolution throughout the history of the universe. This thesis discusses in particular the chemical evolution in the young universe and what we may learn from the observations of the oldest stars. The present day production of carbon in the Galaxy is also discussed. Interstellar media of young, metal-poor, star-forming systems are expected to show large chemical abundance inhomogeneities due to local supernova explosions. These inhomogeneities are reflected in the surface abundances of the population of longlived, low-mass stars. A stochastic model of the chemical evolution in such systems is presented and used to study the metallicity distribution and the scatter in chemical abundance ratios. The model takes into account mixing of the enriched material by turbulent motions and cloud collisions in the interstellar medium as well as infall of pristine matter. The predicted metallicity distribution shows, in accordance with observations of extreme Pop II strars in the Galactic halo, a distinct cut-off at [Fe/H]~-4. However, the fraction of stars below [Fe/H]=-4 agrees with observatrion only if a population of metal-free stars (Pop III) was never able to form. The predicted scatter in abundance ratios is demonstrated to be crucially dependent on the as yet uncertain supernova yields and the relatively small star-to-star scatter is tentatively explained by the averaging of a large number of contributing supernovae and by the selection effects favouring contributions from supernovae in a certain mass range for the most metal-poor stars. Furthermore, stars enriched by one single supernova are predicted to be found in very narrow sequences in the abundance ratio diagrams (so called A/A diagrams). Verification of the existence of such features, called single supernova sequences, is observationally challenging. Abundance analysis of carbon was performed in a large sample of solar-type stars in the Galactic disk using the forbidden [C I] line at 8727 Å. A comparison between the relation of [C/O] with metallicity for the Galactic stars and that of dwarf irregular galaxies suggests that large amounts of carbon are produced today by massive, so called Wolf-Rayet stars. Low-mass stars are less important. This was also demonstrated by modelling the chemical evolution of carbon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 44 p.
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 1051
Astronomy, nucleosynthesis, chemical evolution, Galactic evolution, supernovae, chemical abundances, Population II stars, Astronomi
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4702 (URN)91-554-6117-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-12-03, Polhemsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:00
Available from: 2004-11-12 Created: 2004-11-12Bibliographically approved

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