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Total Lipid Extraction of Homogenized and Intact Lean Fish Muscles Using Pressurized Fluid Extraction and Batch Extraction Technique
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
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2005 (English)In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 53, no 14, 5506-5512 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reliability and efficiency of pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) technique for the extraction of total lipid content from cod and the effect of sample treatment on the extraction efficiency have been evaluated. The results were compared with two liquid-liquid extraction methods, traditional and modified methods according to Jensen. Optimum conditions were found to be with 2-propanol/n-hexane (65:35, v/v) as a first and n-hexane/diethyl ether (90:10, v/v) as a second solvent, 115 oC, and 10 min of static time. PFE extracts were cleaned up using the same procedure as in the methods according to Jensen. When total lipid yields obtained from homogenized cod muscle using PFE were compared yields obtained with original and modified Jensen methods, PFE gave significantly higher yields, ~10% higher (t test, P < 0.05). Infrared and NMR spectroscopy suggested that the additional material that inflates the gravimetric results is rather homogeneus and is primarily consists of phospholipid with headgroups of inositidic and/or glycosidic nature. The comparative study demonstrated that PFE is an alternative suitable technique to extract total lipid content from homogenized cod (lean fish) and herring (fat fish) muscle showing a precision comparable to that obtained with the traditional and modified Jensen methods. Despite the necessary cleanup step, PFE showed important advantages in the solvent consumption was cut by ~50% and automated extraction was possible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 53, no 14, 5506-5512 p.
Keyword [en]
Lean fish, phospholipids, pressurized fluid extraction, PFE, total lipid content
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93095DOI: 10.1021/jf0501286PubMedID: 15998106OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-93095DiVA: diva2:166469
Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Development of Enhanced Analytical Methodology for Lipid Analysis from Sampling to Detection: A Targeted Lipidomics Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Enhanced Analytical Methodology for Lipid Analysis from Sampling to Detection: A Targeted Lipidomics Approach
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis covers a wide range of analytical method development for lipid analysis in complex biological samples; from sample preparation using pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and separation with reversed phase capillary liquid chromatography (RP-LC) to detection by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and tandem MS.

The requirements for fast, reliable and selective extraction methods with minimal usage of solvents have accelerated the development of new extraction techniques. PFE is one of the new automated, fast and efficient liquid extraction techniques which use elevated temperature and pressure with standard liquid solvents. In this thesis the reliability and efficiency of the PFE technique was investigated for the extraction of total lipid content from cod, herring muscle and human brain tissue as well as for pesticides from fatty foodstuffs. Improved or comparable efficiencies were achieved with reduced time and solvent consumption as compared to traditional methods.

A RP-LC coupled online to ESI/MS for the analysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) molecular species was developed and used for the analysis of brain lipids from eight groups of mice treated with vehicle and various neuroleptics. The effect of postnatal iron administration in lipid composition and behavior was investigated. Whether or not these effects could be altered by subchronic administration of the neuroleptics (clozapine and haloperidol) were examined. The results support the hypothesis that an association between psychiatric disorders, behavior abnormalities and lipid membrane constitution in the brain exists.

Finally, a tandem MS precursor ion scan was used to analyze the developmental profile of brain sulfatide accumulation in arylsulfatase A (ASA) deficient (ASA -/-) as compared to wild type control (ASA +/+) mice. The ASA -/- mice were developed as a model of the monogenic disease metachromatic leukodystrophy with an established deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme ASA. The results showed that an alteration in the composition of sulfatide molecular species was observed between the ASA -/- and ASA +/+ mice.

This thesis shows that modern analytical methods can provide new insights in the extraction and analysis of lipids from complex biological samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2005. 48 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 56
Keyword
Analytical chemistry, electrospray ionization, lipids, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pesticides, phosphatidylcholine, pressurized fluid extraction, sphingomyelin, sulfatides, Analytisk kemi
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-5810 (URN)91-554-6259-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-05-20, Room B41, Biomedical Center (BMC), Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29Bibliographically approved
2. Pressurized Fluid Extraction: A Sustainable Technique with Added Values
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pressurized Fluid Extraction: A Sustainable Technique with Added Values
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The challenge for the future was defined by the Brundtland Commission (1987) and by the Rio Declaration (1992), in which the fundamental principles for achieving a sustainable development were provided. Sustainable chemistry can be defined as the contribution of chemistry to the implementation of the Rio Declaration. This thesis shows how Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) can be utilized in chemical analysis, and how this correlates to Green Chemistry.

The reliability and efficiency of the PFE technique was investigated for a variety of analytes and matrices. Applications discussed include: the extraction of the antioxidant Irganox 1076 from linear low density polyethylene, mobile forms of phosphorus in lake sediment, chlorinated paraffins from source-separated household waste, general analytical method for pesticide residues in rape seed, total lipid content in cod muscle, and squalene in olive biomass. Improved or comparable extraction yields were achieved with reduced time and solvent consumption. The decrease in use of organic solvents was 50-90%, resulting in minimal volatile organic compounds emissions and less health-work problem. Due to higher extraction temperatures and more efficient extractions, the selection of solvent is not as important as at lower temperatures, which makes it possible to choose less costly, more environmentally and health beneficial solvents. In general, extraction times are reduced to minutes compared to several hours. As a result of the very short extraction times, the amount of co-extracted material is relatively low, resulting in fewer clean-up step and much shorter analysis time. Selective extractions could be obtained by varying the solvent or solvent mixture and/or using adsorbents.

In this thesis, the PFE technique was compared to the twelve principles of Green Chemistry, and it was shown that it follows several of the principles, thus giving a major contribution to sustainable chemistry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2005. 56 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 107
Keyword
Analytical chemistry, ASE, biomass, green chemistry, household waste, lipid, pesticide, PFE, pressurized fluid extraction, sediment, Analytisk kemi
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6022 (URN)91-554-6376-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-11-04, Room B42, BMC, Uppsala Biomedical Center, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-10-13 Created: 2005-10-13 Last updated: 2013-07-05Bibliographically approved

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