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Adhesion quantification methods for wafer bonding
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
In: Materials Science and Engineering R: ReportsArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93223OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-93223DiVA: diva2:166637
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Silicon and Quartz Microengineering: Processing and Characterisation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silicon and Quartz Microengineering: Processing and Characterisation
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Microengineering has developed a broad range of production techniques to reduce size, increase throughput, and reduce cost of electrical and mechanical devices. The miniaturisation has also entailed entirely new opportunities.

In this work, a piezoresistive silicon sensor measuring mechanical deformation has been designed and fabricated with the help of microengineering. Due to the large variety of used processes, this device can serve as a survey of techniques in this field. Four basic process categories are recognised: additive, subtractive, modifying, and joining methods.

The last category, joining methods, has previously been the least investigated, especially when it comes to compatibility with the other categories. The adaptability of wet chemical etching to established silicon wafer bonding technique has been investigated. Further, phenomena related to oxygen plasma pre-treatment for direct bonding has been investigated by blister bond adhesion tests, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy.

Wafer bonding has been adapted to monocrystalline quartz. For wet chemical pre-treatment, characteristics specific for quartz raise obstacles. Problems with limited allowable annealing temperature, low permeability of water released in the bond at annealing, and electrostatic bonding of particles to the quartz surface, have been studied and overcome. The influence of internal bond interfaces on resonators has been investigated.

Chemical polishing of quartz by ammonium bifluoride has been experimentally investigated at high temperatures and concentrations. Chemometrical methods were used to search for optimum conditions giving the lowest surface roughness. These extreme conditions showed no extra advantages.

Adhesion quantification methods for wafer bonding have been comprehensively reviewed, and augmentations have been suggested. The improved techniques’ usefulness for three areas of use has been forecasted: general understanding, bonding scheme optimisation, and quality control. It was shown that the quality of measurements of all commonly used methods could be dramatically improved by small means.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Fasta tillståndets elektronik, 2005. 34 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 69
Engineering physics, silicon, quartz, microengineering, microstructure, MEMS, wafer bonding, direct bonding, adhesion quantification, Teknisk fysik
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-5852 (URN)91-554-6288-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-06-09, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved

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