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Multivariate Data Analyses of Chlorinated and Brominated Contaminants and Biological Characteristics in Adult Guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
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2005 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 22, 8630-8637 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adult guillemot (Uria aalge) birds, 10 females and 10 males, drowned in trawl nets near Stora Karlsö in the Baltic Sea, were collected in 2000. Several of the animals' biological characteristics were recorded. The birds' pectoral muscles were individually analyzed for their concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating contaminant was p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with a geometric mean concentration of 12 900 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The concentration of ΣPBDE (80 ng/g lw) was similar to that of HBCD (65 ng/g lw). The total concentration of all OCs was approximately 150 times higher than that of all BFRs. For the statistical evaluation of the data, we used multivariate analysis techniques such as principal components analysis, partial least-squares (PLS) regression, and PLS discriminant analyses. No differences between the two sexes were found, either in contaminant concentrations or in biological characteristics. We found that some biological characteristics covaried with the concentrations of several OCs and BFRs, e.g., a negative correlation between liver weight and concentration of contaminants. The concentrations of most OCs but not of BFRs showed a decrease with increasing lipid content. Further, a PLS model with OCs as X and BFRs as Y showed that the contaminants formed two groups, each with distinctive correlation patterns. The PLS model could be used to predictwith varying accuracy the concentration of BFRs in the individual muscles from their concentration of OCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 39, no 22, 8630-8637 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93809PubMedID: 16323756OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-93809DiVA: diva2:167404
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2010-12-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. QSBMR Quantitative Structure Biomagnification Relationships: Studies Regarding Persistent Environmental Pollutants in the Baltic Sea Biota
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QSBMR Quantitative Structure Biomagnification Relationships: Studies Regarding Persistent Environmental Pollutants in the Baltic Sea Biota
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

I have studied persistent environmental pollutants in herring (Clupea harengus), in adult guillemot (Uria aalge) and in guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea. The studied contaminants were organochlorines (OCs); dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs); polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). The highest concentration in both species was shown by p,p′DDE with a concentration in guillemot egg (geometric mean (GM) with 95% confidence interval) of 18200 (17000 – 19600) ng/g lipid weight. The BFR with the highest concentration in guillemot egg was HBCD with a GM concentration of 140 (120 – 160) ng/g lw.

To extract additional and essential information from the data, not possible to obtain using only univariate or bivariate statistics, I used multivariate data analysis techniques; principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares regression (PLS), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), and PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). I found e.g.; that there are significant negative correlations between egg weight and the concentrations of HCB and p,p'DDE; that concentrations of OCs and BFRs in the organisms co-varied so that concentrations of OCs can be used to calculate concentrations of BFRs; and, that several contaminants (e.g. HBCD) had higher concentration in guillemot egg than in guillemot muscle, that several (e.g. BDE47) showed no concentration difference between muscle and egg and that one contaminant (BDE154) showed higher concentration in the guillemot muscles than in egg.

In this thesis I developed a new method, “randomly sampled ratios” (RSR), to calculate biomagnification factors (BMFs) i.e. the ratio between the concentration of a contaminant in an organism and the concentration of the same contaminant in its food. With this new method BMFs are denoted with an estimate of variation. Contaminants that biomagnify are e.g., p,p′DDE, CB118, HCB, βHCH and all of the BFRs. Those that do not biomagnify are e.g., p,p′DDT, αHCH and CB101.

Lastly, to investigate which of the contaminants descriptors (physical-chemical/other properties and characteristics) that correlates to the biomagnification of the contaminants, I modeled the contaminants’ respective BMFRSR versus ~100 descriptors and showed that ~20 descriptors in combination were important, either favoring or counteracting biomagnification between herring and guillemot.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2005. 60 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 125
Biology, Biomagnification, Multivariate modelling of environmental data, Transport of contaminants, Environmental toxicology, Biologi
National Category
Biological Sciences
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6173 (URN)91-554-6412-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-12-15, Lindahlssalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 18 A, Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, Norbyvägen 18 A, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2009-04-03Bibliographically approved

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