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Organochlorines and Brominated Flame Retardants in Baltic Sea Guillemot (Uria aalge) Egg and Muscle
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
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2006 (English)In: Chemosphere, Vol. 65, 1591-1599 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) were determined in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggsfrom the island of Stora Karlso¨ in the Baltic Sea where 10 eggs/year were collected in the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The dominatingcontaminant in egg was p,p0-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p0-DDE) with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 18200 ng/glipid weight (lw). The GM concentration in egg of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) of 140 ng/g lw, was significantly higher than thatof polybrominated diphenyl ether (PPBDE) of 77 ng/g lw.For the evaluation of the data multivariate data analysis techniques namely principal components analysis (PCA), partial leastsquares regression (PLS), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA classification), and PLS discriminant analysis (PLSDA),were used. We investigated whether the eggs’ biological characteristics co-varied with egg concentrations of OCs and BFRs,and found e.g., significant negative correlations between egg weight and concentrations of HCB and p,p0-DDE. A PLS model with analyzedBFRs as the Y matrix and OCs as the X matrix could, with varying accuracy, calculate the concentrations of BFRs in the individualegg from their concentrations of OCs (e.g., R2Y of 0.89 for BDE47, and of 0.50 for HBCD).Lastly, we compared the contaminant concentrations in the eggs to those in previously analyzed pectoral muscles from adult guillemotsfrom Stora Karlso¨ , from the year 2000. A PLS-DA model, showed that some of the contaminants (e.g., HBCD and CB28) hadsignificantly higher concentrations in egg than in muscle, although 7 of the 14 contaminants showed no difference in concentrationsbetween the two matrices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 65, 1591-1599 p.
Keyword [en]
Guillemot, pollutants, PLS, PLS-DA
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93810OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-93810DiVA: diva2:167405
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2010-03-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. QSBMR Quantitative Structure Biomagnification Relationships: Studies Regarding Persistent Environmental Pollutants in the Baltic Sea Biota
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QSBMR Quantitative Structure Biomagnification Relationships: Studies Regarding Persistent Environmental Pollutants in the Baltic Sea Biota
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

I have studied persistent environmental pollutants in herring (Clupea harengus), in adult guillemot (Uria aalge) and in guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea. The studied contaminants were organochlorines (OCs); dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs); polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). The highest concentration in both species was shown by p,p′DDE with a concentration in guillemot egg (geometric mean (GM) with 95% confidence interval) of 18200 (17000 – 19600) ng/g lipid weight. The BFR with the highest concentration in guillemot egg was HBCD with a GM concentration of 140 (120 – 160) ng/g lw.

To extract additional and essential information from the data, not possible to obtain using only univariate or bivariate statistics, I used multivariate data analysis techniques; principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares regression (PLS), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), and PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). I found e.g.; that there are significant negative correlations between egg weight and the concentrations of HCB and p,p'DDE; that concentrations of OCs and BFRs in the organisms co-varied so that concentrations of OCs can be used to calculate concentrations of BFRs; and, that several contaminants (e.g. HBCD) had higher concentration in guillemot egg than in guillemot muscle, that several (e.g. BDE47) showed no concentration difference between muscle and egg and that one contaminant (BDE154) showed higher concentration in the guillemot muscles than in egg.

In this thesis I developed a new method, “randomly sampled ratios” (RSR), to calculate biomagnification factors (BMFs) i.e. the ratio between the concentration of a contaminant in an organism and the concentration of the same contaminant in its food. With this new method BMFs are denoted with an estimate of variation. Contaminants that biomagnify are e.g., p,p′DDE, CB118, HCB, βHCH and all of the BFRs. Those that do not biomagnify are e.g., p,p′DDT, αHCH and CB101.

Lastly, to investigate which of the contaminants descriptors (physical-chemical/other properties and characteristics) that correlates to the biomagnification of the contaminants, I modeled the contaminants’ respective BMFRSR versus ~100 descriptors and showed that ~20 descriptors in combination were important, either favoring or counteracting biomagnification between herring and guillemot.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2005. 60 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 125
Keyword
Biology, Biomagnification, Multivariate modelling of environmental data, Transport of contaminants, Environmental toxicology, Biologi
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6173 (URN)91-554-6412-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-12-15, Lindahlssalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 18 A, Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, Norbyvägen 18 A, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
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Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2009-04-03Bibliographically approved

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