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Copulatory organ musculature in Childia (Acoela) as revealed by phalloidin fluorescence and confocal microscopy
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
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2006 (English)In: Tissue & Cell, ISSN 0040-8166, E-ISSN 1532-3072, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 219-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Copulatory organs of eight species of the monophyletic taxon Childia were investigated in detail, using phalloidin fluorescence method and confocal microscopy. Childia species were shown to have one, two or several tubular stylets, conical to cylindrical in shape, composed of few to numerous needles. The musculature varied greatly, from the absence of seminal vesicle to extensively developed seminal vesicles with several additional types of specialized muscles. Ten copulatory organ characters were coded and mapped on the total evidence tree. The data obtained permitted to follow the evolution of the Childia stylet and to demonstrate that the structure of the stylet apparatus is. largely consistent with the phylogeny of the group (CI = 0.75). Possible function of different muscle specializations was discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 38, no 4, p. 219-232
Keyword [en]
muscles, phalloidin, copulatory organs, stylet, Acoela, Childia
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93957DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2006.04.001ISI: 000241257100001PubMedID: 16901523OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-93957DiVA, id: diva2:167620
Available from: 2006-01-26 Created: 2006-01-26 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Childia (Acoela): New characters for unraveling acoel phylogenies from molecules, ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Childia (Acoela): New characters for unraveling acoel phylogenies from molecules, ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents a comprehensive phylogenetic and taxonomic study of an acoel subgroup, the Childiidae. Members of this taxon are characterized by well-developed male copulatory organs with conical/cylindrical stylets. The phylogenetic analyses, by means of total evidence approach, based on three molecular markers (18S and 28S rRNA genes and Histone H3) and 50 morphological characters reaffirm the non-monophyly of the Childiidae sensu Dörjes, 1968 (Actinoposthiidae and Childia+Paraphanostoma). The total evidence phylogeny strongly support the Childia+Paraphanostoma clade separate from other former members of the Childiidae, which are now placed in Actinoposthiidae. The monophyly of Childia+Paraphanostoma is well corroborated by several morphological characters. A new taxon Childia is defined, in accordance with the PhyloCode, comprising all former Paraphanostoma species and a member of the monotypic genus C. groenlandica. A new diagnosis for the current members of Childia is provided.

Several structures, shown to hold promising phylogenetic signals for unraveling acoel relationships, such as musculature pattern, sperm and male copulatory organs, are investigated, using a combination of traditional and modern techniques (ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy), with main focus on Childia and its closest relatives. New characters are described and their phylogenetic significance assessed. Morphological characters relating to body-wall musculature, statocyst muscles, male copulatory organ musculature and ultrastructure, and sperm cytoplasmic granules are shown to carry important phylogenetic signals at lower taxonomic levels, while most of the characters related to sperm ultrastructure are useful at higher taxonomic levels within the Acoela. The data obtained undermine the phylogenetic use of the seminal bursa in Childia. In addition to this, it is shown that most of the classical morphological characters used in acoel taxonomy, obtained using traditional histological methods, may be misleading in identifying monophyletic entities within the Acoela.

The most corroborated synapomorphies, identified in this thesis, are used in determining the taxonomic placement of a new viviparous acoel, Childia vivipara, into the taxon Childia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. p. 44
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 140
Keyword
Biology, Childiidae, Childia, Paraphanostoma, Acoela, phylogeny, taxonomy, morphology, 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, Histone H3, ultrastructure, confocal, phalloidin, immunocytochemistry, Biologi
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6315 (URN)91-554-6448-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-02-24, Zootissalen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-01-26 Created: 2006-01-26 Last updated: 2013-06-13Bibliographically approved

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