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A Hybrid Cold Gas Microthruster System for Spacecraft
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
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2002 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, Vol. 97-98, 587-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A hybrid cold gas microthruster system suitable for low Δv applications on spacecraft have been developed. Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components together with fine-mechanics form the microthruster units, intergrating four independent thrusters. These are designed to deliver maximum thrusts in the range of 0.1–10 mN.

The system includes three different micromachined subsystems: a nozzle unit comprising four nozzles generating supersonic gas velocity, i.e. 455 m/s, four independent piezoelectric proportional valves with leak rates at 10−6 scc/s He, and two particle filters. The performances of all these MEMS subsystems have been evaluated.

The total system performance has been estimated in two parameters, the system-specific impulse and the mass ratio of the propulsion system to the spacecraft mass. These figures provide input for spacecraft design and manufacture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 97-98, 587-98 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93968DOI: 10.1016/S0924-4247(01)00805-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-93968DiVA: diva2:167632
Available from: 2006-01-19 Created: 2006-01-19 Last updated: 2013-09-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Integrated Communications and Thermal Management Systems for Microsystem-based Spacecraft: A Multifunctional Microsystem Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Communications and Thermal Management Systems for Microsystem-based Spacecraft: A Multifunctional Microsystem Approach
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores the potential of multifunctional silicon-based microsystems for advanced integrated nanospacecraft (AIN). Especially, multifunctional microsystems with the coexistant functions of communications and thermal management implemented in multilayer silicon stacks are approached with systems study. Host vehicles, composed of microsystems, including micro/nano-spacecraft and spherical rovers are contemplated with respect to future performance and implications, system level design, and breadboard realizations. A module of great importance, named the "integrated communications and thermal management system for advanced integrated spacecraft" or ICTM, symbolizes the achievements within the field of self-contained microsystems and is a prioritized entity throughout the thesis. The ICTM is natively placable onboard all types of highly miniaturized craft.

The single AIN spacecraft and future clusters of these are investigated with respect to future full scale implementation of space systems designed and implemented with the distributed reconfigurable nanospacecraft cluster (DRNC) concept. Here, a true entanglement of microsystems technology (MST) and miniaturized spacecraft technology can revolutionize the applications, cost, and span of conceivable space missions.

An intended communications scenario supporting a data rate of 1 Mbps, for the transmitter, is achieved during 6 minutes with a maximum continuous power dissipation of 10 W. Thermal simulations support the expectation, of a thermally biased ICTM, that the module is capable of supporting this energy burst, by using the mechanisms of heat storage and heat switches, and still fulfilling the requirements imposed by AIN type of spacecraft. In addition, multiple functional surfaces for the ICTM are evaluated with respect to equilibrium temperature and process compatibility. The tailored surfaces provide temperature control using micromachining methods.

A design of a micromachined Ka-band front end with several MST enabled features is presented including e.g. vias, phase-shifters, and antennas. Similar antennas have been manufactured resulting in an evaluation of ring- and slot-antennas on silicon substrate. Based on a primitive version of the ICTM, a S-band patch antenna has been successfully implemented and characterized. Included in the thesis is a microthruster, an enabling technology for DRNC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 45 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 141
Keyword
Electronics, nanospacecraft, MST, MEMS, silicon, communication, thermal management, antenna, paraffin, PCM, multifunctional, microsystems, Elektronik
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6316 (URN)91-554-6449-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-02-10, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-01-19 Created: 2006-01-19 Last updated: 2013-09-20Bibliographically approved
2. Fluidic Microsystems for Micropropulsion Applications in Space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluidic Microsystems for Micropropulsion Applications in Space
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Spacecraft on interplanetary missions or advanced satellites orbiting the Earth all require propulsion systems to complete their missions. Introducing microelectromechanical systems technology to the space industry will not only reduce size and weight of the propulsion system, but can also increase the performance of the mission.

Fluid handling systems are used in chemical and electric propulsion. Some components incorporated in a fluidic handling system are presented and evaluated in this work.

Microsystems are very sensitive to contamination. Reliable, robust, and easily integrated filters were modeled, manufactured, and experimentally verified.

A fluid connector, designed to withstand large temperature variations and aggressive propellants was manufactured and characterized. Similar designs was also be used as a thermally activated minute valve.

The feasibility of a cold gas system for precise attitude control has been demonstrated. Steps towards improving the performance (from specific im-pulse 45 s) have been taken, by the integration of suspended heater elements.

For electric propulsion, two thermally regulated flow restrictors have been characterized. These devices can fine-tune the propellant flow to e.g. an ion engine.

A single-use valve using a soldered seal has also been successfully dem-onstrated within a pressure range of 5 to 100 bar.

The microsystem-based propulsion systems of tomorrow’s spacecraft need to be demonstrated in space, in order to gain necessary credibility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 34 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 223
Keyword
Engineering physics, microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, MST, microsystem, microfluidics, silicon, spacecraft, propulsion, space technology, Teknisk fysik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7148 (URN)91-554-6655-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-10-06, Polhelmssalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-09-15 Created: 2006-09-15 Last updated: 2013-09-26Bibliographically approved

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