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Defining the Surface Binding Energy in Dynamic Monte Carlo Simulation for Reactive Sputtering of Compounds
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
2006 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 80, no 9, 944-948 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Monte Carlo simulations of reactive sputtering, it is commonly assumed that the surface binding energy (SBE) for the different phases in the target exhibits a linear behaviour in the transition between the metal mode and the compound mode. In this work we study how the transition between the two modes takes place, and more specifically attempt to experimentally identify how the SBE for the different phases behaves in the transition between the two modes. In essence, this is done by comparing XPS measurements of the aluminium 2p binding energy on samples comprising pure aluminium, stoichiometric aluminium nitride and aluminium oxide with the corresponding measurements on understoichiometric aluminium nitride samples. In this work, it is assumed that the binding energy of the core level is directly correlated to the SBE of the phase in question. That is to say, if the aluminium 2p binding energy in aluminium nitride exhibits a constant and discrete value independent of the nitrogen concentration, the SBE for the compound exhibits a constant and discrete value independent of the surface concentration of nitrogen. It was found by the XPS measurement that the aluminium 2p binding energy in aluminium nitride exhibits a constant and discrete value independent of the nitrogen concentration in the samples and it was, therefore, concluded that the SBE for the different phases exhibits constant and discrete values independent of the surface concentration of nitrogen. The discrete behaviour of the SBE was implemented in the TRIDYN program and the results from these simulations were compared with simulations in which it is assumed that the SBE of the different phases exhibits a linear behaviour in the transition between the metal mode and the compound mode.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 80, no 9, 944-948 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93980DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2005.12.005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-93980DiVA: diva2:167649
Available from: 2006-01-27 Created: 2006-01-27 Last updated: 2016-06-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Studies of the Reactive Sputtering Process and its Application in Electro-Acoustic Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies of the Reactive Sputtering Process and its Application in Electro-Acoustic Devices
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electro-acoustic devices such as surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices have been in commercial use for over 60 years and can be found in applications ranging from specialised scientific and military equipment to consumer products, such as mobile telephones, TV and radio receivers, etc. Today by far the largest market for electro-acoustic devices is the telecommunication industry which annually consumes approximately three billion acoustic wave filters for frequency control alone.

The development of new materials and technologies for electro-acoustic devices has gained a substantial and growing interest from both academic and industrial research communities in recent years due to the enormous growth in the telecommunication industry and other forms of wireless data communication. One of the bigger issues has been to replace the single crystalline substrates with thin film piezoelectric materials deposited by reactive sputtering. This would not only reduce the manufacturing costs but will also enable high frequency of operation and a wider choice of substrate materials. However, in order to obtain the material properties required for the intended application a detailed theoretical description of the reactive sputtering process is necessary since the texture and other functional properties of the piezoelectric material are extremely sensitive to the process parameters in addition to the structure of the underlying material.

This thesis studies the reactive sputtering process and its application for the fabrication of thin film electro-acoustic devices. The aim has been to gain a further insight into the process and make use of this knowledge to improve the fabrication of electro-acoustic devices. In this work modelling of the reactive sputtering process has been improved by studying certain fundamental aspects of the process and in particular the dynamics of the processes taking place during sputtering both at the target and the substrate surfaces. Consequently, highly textured thin piezoelectric aluminium nitride films have been synthesized and thin film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR) operating in the GHz range have been fabricated and studied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 61 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 142
Keyword
Materials science, Sputtering, Reactive Sputtering, Electro Acoustic Devices, Materialvetenskap
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6320 (URN)91-554-6452-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-02-17, 10134, Ångström Laboratory, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-01-27 Created: 2006-01-27Bibliographically approved

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