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Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders in a total population of children: clinical assessment and background
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3975-0063
2005 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 94, no 11, 1608-1614 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To describe the symptoms, onset, heredity, pre-/perinatal events and socio-economic status in Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic disorders.

Methods: From a total population of 4479 children, 25 (0.6%) with TS, 58 (1.3%) with chronic motor/vocal tics (CMVT) and 214 (4.8%) with transient tics (TT) in the last year were found. A three-stage procedure was used: tic screening, telephone interview and clinical assessment. The TS group was compared with 25 children with TT and 25 controls without tics.

Results: The mean age of the first symptoms of TS was significantly lower than the onset of CMVT. All except one with TS had contact with medical services. The tics of children with TS were significantly more severe than the tics of others. Younger age of onset of TS indicated more severe tics. Parents and siblings of children with TS had an increased prevalence of tic disorders, obsessive-compulsive behaviour (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Eighty per cent had a first-degree relative with a psychiatric disorder. A non-significant increase with regards to reduced optimality score in the pre-, peri- or neonatal periods was found in children with TS compared to controls. No differences were found concerning socio-economic status.

Conclusion: Almost all children from a total population with TS have sought help from medical services. An increased prevalence of tics, OCD, depression or ADHD was found in the parents/siblings of children with TS, which draws attention to the importance of thorough investigation of family members.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 94, no 11, 1608-1614 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94004DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb01837.xPubMedID: 16352498OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-94004DiVA: diva2:167683
Available from: 2006-02-16 Created: 2006-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders in a Swedish School Population: Prevalence, Clinical Assessment, Background, Psychopathology, and Cognitive Function
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders in a Swedish School Population: Prevalence, Clinical Assessment, Background, Psychopathology, and Cognitive Function
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A total population of 4,479 children (7-15 years of age) attended school in Ludvika & Smedjebacken in 2000. All the school children and their parents were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning different tics A three-stage procedure was used: tic identification, interview, and clinical assessment.

Tourette syndrome, according to DSM IV criteria was found in 25 (0.6%) of the children, another 34 (0.8%) suffered from chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 (0.4%) from chronic vocal tics (CVT) and 214 (4.8%) children had had transient tics (TT) during the last year. Altogether 297 (6.6%) children had or had had some tic disorder.

Twenty-five controls without tics and 25 children with TT of the same age, sex and school as the TS children were randomly chosen. They were together with the 34 children with CMT and the 24 children with CVT examined with use of a broad battery of instruments.

The mean age of the first symptoms of TS was significantly lower than the onset of chronic motor/vocal tics. A younger age of onset of TS indicated more severe tics. Eighty per cent had a first-degree relative with a psychiatric disorder such as tic disorder, obsessive-compulsive behaviour, attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or depression. A non-significant increase with regard to reduced optimality score in the pre-, peri-, or neonatal periods was found in children with TS compared to controls. No differences were found concerning socio-economic status. Psychiatric comorbid disorders were found in 92% of the children with TS. ADHD was most common. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity were similar in children with TS and CVT. Children with TS perform poorer than the population in general with respect to cognitive functioning and self-perception.

The results are discussed as they relate to the need for case identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 68 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 105
Keyword
Child and adolescent psychiatry, Tourette syndrome, tic disorders, population study, psychopathology, heredity, perinatal complications, cognitive function, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri
National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6334 (URN)91-554-6460-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-03-10, Auditoriet, Gustavianum, Akademi gatan 3, 753 10 Uppsala, 09:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-02-16 Created: 2006-02-16 Last updated: 2013-09-19Bibliographically approved

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von Knorring, Anne-Liis

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