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Tourette Syndrome in the General Child Population: Cognitive functioning and self-perception
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2010 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 64, no 1, 11-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to examine the cognitive function and self-perception in a school-population-based sample of children with Tourette syndrome (TS). Many studies have examined cognitive and emotional functioning in clinical samples but to our knowledge, there is no population-based study of TS in schoolchildren. In a population-based sample identified in a rigid diagnostic procedure (n = 25), cognitive functioning and self-perception were examined. There was a large variation in the cognitive functioning of children with TS, at least one third obtaining subnormal results. The profile of index scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) factors was somewhat uneven, with the freedom from distractibility and processing speed factors presenting the lowest median scores. The TS group had more negative self-perceptions than a comparison group. Tic severity or age at onset was not associated with cognitive performance or self-perception. Children who were taking medication had lower full IQ scores than children who were not. Low cognitive abilities and negative self-perception may be common in community-based samples of children with Tourette syndrome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 64, no 1, 11-18 p.
National Category
Psychiatry Psychology
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94006DOI: 10.3109/08039480903248096ISI: 000273780200003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-94006DiVA: diva2:167685
Available from: 2006-02-16 Created: 2006-02-16 Last updated: 2016-05-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders in a Swedish School Population: Prevalence, Clinical Assessment, Background, Psychopathology, and Cognitive Function
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders in a Swedish School Population: Prevalence, Clinical Assessment, Background, Psychopathology, and Cognitive Function
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A total population of 4,479 children (7-15 years of age) attended school in Ludvika & Smedjebacken in 2000. All the school children and their parents were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning different tics A three-stage procedure was used: tic identification, interview, and clinical assessment.

Tourette syndrome, according to DSM IV criteria was found in 25 (0.6%) of the children, another 34 (0.8%) suffered from chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 (0.4%) from chronic vocal tics (CVT) and 214 (4.8%) children had had transient tics (TT) during the last year. Altogether 297 (6.6%) children had or had had some tic disorder.

Twenty-five controls without tics and 25 children with TT of the same age, sex and school as the TS children were randomly chosen. They were together with the 34 children with CMT and the 24 children with CVT examined with use of a broad battery of instruments.

The mean age of the first symptoms of TS was significantly lower than the onset of chronic motor/vocal tics. A younger age of onset of TS indicated more severe tics. Eighty per cent had a first-degree relative with a psychiatric disorder such as tic disorder, obsessive-compulsive behaviour, attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or depression. A non-significant increase with regard to reduced optimality score in the pre-, peri-, or neonatal periods was found in children with TS compared to controls. No differences were found concerning socio-economic status. Psychiatric comorbid disorders were found in 92% of the children with TS. ADHD was most common. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity were similar in children with TS and CVT. Children with TS perform poorer than the population in general with respect to cognitive functioning and self-perception.

The results are discussed as they relate to the need for case identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 68 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 105
Child and adolescent psychiatry, Tourette syndrome, tic disorders, population study, psychopathology, heredity, perinatal complications, cognitive function, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri
National Category
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6334 (URN)91-554-6460-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-03-10, Auditoriet, Gustavianum, Akademi gatan 3, 753 10 Uppsala, 09:15
Available from: 2006-02-16 Created: 2006-02-16 Last updated: 2013-09-19Bibliographically approved

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Rydell, Ann-Margret
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Child and Adolescent PsychiatryDepartment of Psychology
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