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Development of depression: sex and the interaction between environment and a promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
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2006 (English)In: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 1461-1457, E-ISSN 1469-5111, Vol. 9, no 4, 443-449 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has demonstrated that a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and adverse psychosocial circumstances interact to predict depression. The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which sex modulates these effects. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls (16-19 years old) were interviewed about psychosocial background variables and genotyped for the 5-HTT promoter polymorphism. There were two main results. First, boys and girls carrying the short 5-HTTLPR allele react to different kinds of environmental factors. Whereas males were affected by living in public housing rather than in own owned homes and by living with separated parents, females were affected by traumatic conflicts within the family. Second, the responses of males and females carrying the short 5-HTTLPR allele to environmental stress factors go in opposite directions. Thus, whereas females tend to develop depressive symptoms, males seem to be protected from depression. The results suggest that both the molecular and the psychosocial mechanisms underlying depression may differ between boys and girls.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 9, no 4, 443-449 p.
Keyword [en]
depression, gene-environment interaction, genotype, phenotype, sex characteristics
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94073DOI: 10.1017/S1461145705005936ISI: 000239476100007PubMedID: 16212676OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-94073DiVA: diva2:167797
Available from: 2006-03-17 Created: 2006-03-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gene-Environment Interaction in Adolescent Deviant Behaviour
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene-Environment Interaction in Adolescent Deviant Behaviour
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis was to explore gene-environmental (G*E) interactions in relation to deviant behaviour among 200 Swedish adolescents, with a focus on criminality, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms. Those behaviours have been extensively investigated in relation to both psychosocial and biological risk factors. The biological markers used were the monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene polymorphisms.

The main findings indicated a considerable gene-environment interaction in relation to all outcome variables studied. Individuals with the long/short variant of the 5HTTLPR gene, in combination with unfavourable family relations, both consumed more alcohol and had 12-14 times higher risks of being classified as high alcohol consumers.

The MAO-A gene showed a G*E interaction related to criminality. Among boys, the short allele predicted an increased risk for criminality, whereas among girls, it was the long allele, if they lived in multi-family houses and/or had been maltreated, assaulted or sexually abused.

A G*E interaction in relation to depressive symptoms among both boys and girls was determined. Girls carrying the short 5HTTLPR allele in combination with psychosocial stress, presented elevated depressive symptoms, whereas among boys, the long 5HTTLPR allele was a source of depressive symptoms. In both sexes, there was a G*E interaction of a psychosocial risk index. Girls were more affected by poor family relations and boys by multi-family housing and separated parents.

In conclusion, the MAO-A and 5HTTLPR genotypes, in interaction with psychosocial adversity, are related to different deviant behaviours among adolescents. The direct effects of the genotypes needed to be adjusted for the psychosocial factors, whereas the psychosocial factors had direct relation to the outcome measures. There is also an indication of a different pattern in G*E interaction between boys and girls and that different psychosocial factors affect boys and girls differently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 114
Keyword
Neurobiology, Adolescent, Alcohol, Criminology, Genes, Environment, Monoamine Oxidase, Serotonin, Social Support, Neurobiologi
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6536 (URN)91-554-6478-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-04-07, Kongresshallen, AROS CONGRESS CENTER, Munkgatan 7, Västerås, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-03-17 Created: 2006-03-17 Last updated: 2011-02-10Bibliographically approved

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Öhrvik, JohnLeppert, JerzyLindström, Leif

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