BACKGROUND: Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion has been introduced as a strategy of cerebral protection in operations on the aortic arch with hypothermic circulatory arrest. Several techniques of unilateral and bilateral cerebral perfusion have been described with varying results.
METHODS: Patients underwent either unilateral cerebral perfusion with a cannula in the right subclavian artery or bilateral cerebral perfusion, with an additional cannula in the left carotid artery. A simplified Seldinger-type technique for subclavian artery cannulation was employed. Results were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression analysis and propensity score analysis to adjust for nonrandomized treatment assignment.
RESULTS: Of 65 patients, 17 (26%) had unilateral cerebral perfusion. Mortality was 11% (n = 7); 14% (n = 9) had a stroke. In multivariable analysis, unilateral cerebral perfusion was significantly associated with stroke (odds ratio 6.6 [1.2 to 36]). Age more than 70 years was associated with in-hospital death (odds ratio 12 [1.3 to 113]), and concomitant coronary artery bypass graft surgery was associated with adverse outcome (odds ratio 23 [1.8 to 299]). Balancing variables in a propensity score analysis, stroke remained significantly more common with unilateral brain perfusion (29% versus 0%, p = 0.045). Complications associated with subclavian artery cannulation were encountered in 1 patient (1.5%).
CONCLUSIONS: The described cannulation technique is safe and effective. Bilateral cerebral perfusion is easily achieved and is associated with decreased stroke risk, and should be the preferred brain protection strategy.
2006. Vol. 81, no 3, 868-874 p.