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Wave energy potential in the Baltic Sea and the Danish part of the North Sea, with reflections on the Skagerrak
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2007 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, Vol. 32, no 12, 2069-2084 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wave power, along with renewable energy-generating sources like tides and streams, is underestimated considering its advantageous physical properties and predictability. This paper examines possible examples of wave power installations in the Baltic Sea and the Danish part of the North Sea. Hindcasting data is used allowing estimations of wave energy generated and results show promising areas in the North Sea, but also several parts of the Baltic Sea are of interest. The study is based upon linear generator technique, placed on the seabed using point-absorbers arranged in arrays of up to several thousand units. The study aims at showing the physical possibilities of wave energy, including economical feasibility and environmental advantages of wave energy even in moderate wave climates. With discussion from two examples in the Baltic Sea, one in the Danish North Sea and a new pilot study site in the Swedish part of Skagerrak, this study show feasible illustrations of wave energy takeouts. Project examples vary in size due to distance to grid, grid voltage, and may thus be economically feasible. Examples also show considerations in societal and nature conservation matters, including aspects such as industrial and military interests, archaeological or marine reserves and local geology. The authors conclude that wave energy electric conversion is an option that needs more attention and which has several advantages compared to conventional renewable sources. Sound engineering, in combination with producer, consumer and broad societal perspective is advised for a sustainable development of wave energy conversion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 32, no 12, 2069-2084 p.
Keyword [en]
Wave energy, Linear generator, Hindcasting, Baltic Sea, Energy potentials
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94692DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2006.10.006ISI: 000247765600008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-94692DiVA: diva2:168641
Available from: 2006-09-01 Created: 2006-09-01 Last updated: 2011-01-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Electric Energy Conversion Systems: Wave Energy and Hydropower
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Energy Conversion Systems: Wave Energy and Hydropower
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electric energy conversion is an important issue in today's society as our daily lives largely depend on the supplies of energy. Two energy sources are studied for conversion in the present thesis, ocean waves and hydropower. The work focuses on the generator and the transmission of its output to the electric grid.

Different approaches have been used, over the years, to convert the energy in ocean waves, and the method presently used is based on a point absorber (buoy) directly coupled to a linear generator on the seabed. A varying alternating voltage is induced with such configuration, where both the amplitude and the frequency changes continuously. The target is to connect several units in a farm, and thereby decrease the fluctuations in power production. This is shown to be possible to accomplish with a rectifier connected to each generator. Transmission systems can be designed with converters and transformers to connect the farm to the electric grid onshore. Several aspects of the concept are considered as well as interconnection issues. Analytical calculations verified by finite element simulations and measured data are used to model the behaviour of a linear generator. A series expanded expression for the ideal no-load flux and EMF (electromotive force) is derived, which can be developed into an analytical transmission design tool.

Hydropower has been used for more than a century. Today many of the stations from the mid 1900's are up for refurbishment. Studies with finite element calculations show that a higher electric efficiency can be obtained with a high voltage cable wound generator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 59 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 202
Engineering physics, Ocean wave power, renewable energy, linear generator, farm simulation, Teknisk fysik
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7081 (URN)91-554-6617-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-09-22, Siegbahnsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15
Available from: 2006-09-01 Created: 2006-09-01 Last updated: 2013-07-31Bibliographically approved

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Bernhoff, HansLeijon, MatsSundberg, JanThorburn, Karin
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