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Axon-bearing and axon-less horizontal cells are generated consecutively during chick retinal development as molecularly distinct populations that are sensitive to activin signalling
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94827OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-94827DiVA: diva2:168819
Available from: 2006-09-28 Created: 2006-09-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Neuronal Development in the Embryonic Retina: Focus on the Characterization, Generation and Development of Horizontal Cell Subtypes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuronal Development in the Embryonic Retina: Focus on the Characterization, Generation and Development of Horizontal Cell Subtypes
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Horizontal cells are retinal interneurons that modulate the output from photoreceptors. Two horizontal cell (HC) subtypes are commonly identified in the vertebrate retina: axon-bearing and axon-less HCs. In this work, we have identified Isl1 as a novel HC marker and demonstrated that Lim1 and Isl1 distinguish axon-bearing and axon-less HCs, respectively. In the chick retina, axon-less HCs are furthermore split into two different subtypes based on the expression of GABA and TrkA.

We have demonstrated that during early chick retinogenesis, HCs expressing either Lim1 or Isl1 are generated consecutively as two equally large sub-groups at different time points. Moreover, these newborn HCs undertake an unexpected bi-directional migration before settling in their final laminar position. Different HC subtypes complete this migration at different times.

We investigated the role of activin signaling during HC subtype generation. Activin or its inhibitor follistatin was administrated during the main phase of HC generation and analyzed when HCs had completed migration. Activin caused a significant decrease in both HC subtypes and decreased the proliferation of retinal precursor cells. Follistatin increased the number of late born (Isl1+) HCs, which migrated to the HC-layer during a prolonged migration period. Both treatments affected retinal histology, but only activin influenced the generation of retinal populations other than HCs. These effects were most likely mediated by altered proliferation in certain retinal precursor cells.

The data on HC subtype ratios, birth-dates, migration, apoptosis and extrinsic activin modulation favor a scenario where the mature proportions of HC subtypes are generated sequentially from a specific HC-precursor cell lineage early in development and remain stable thereafter. These proportions are not adjusted by apoptosis, but rather by the combined actions of transcription factors and extrinsic signaling. Our studies on HC subtypes and their development promises to facilitate future studies on HC development, evolution and function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 81 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 170
Neurosciences, Activin, Chick, Follistatin, Interneuron, Isl1, Lim1, Migration, Neurogenesis, Prox1, Transcription factor, Neurovetenskap
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7128 (URN)91-554-6645-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-10-20, B41, Biomedicinskt centrum (BMC), Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15
Available from: 2006-09-28 Created: 2006-09-28Bibliographically approved

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