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Rapid lineage-specific diversification of the mast cell chymase locus during mammalian evolution
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
2006 In: Immunogenetics, ISSN 0093-7711 (Print), Vol. 58, no 8, 641-654 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 58, no 8, 641-654 p.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95242OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-95242DiVA: diva2:169380
Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sculpted through Time: Evolution and Function of Serine Proteases from the Mast Cell Chymase Locus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sculpted through Time: Evolution and Function of Serine Proteases from the Mast Cell Chymase Locus
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Immune cells like NK cells, T cells, neutrophils and mast cells store high amounts of granule serine proteases, graspases. Graspases are encoded from the mast cell chymase locus. The human locus holds four genes: α-chymase, cathepsin G, and granzymes H and B. In contrast, the mouse locus contains at least 14 genes. Many of these belong to subfamilies not found in human, e.g. the Mcpt8-family. These differences hamper functional comparisons of graspases and of immune cells in the two species. Studies of the mast cell chymase locus are therefore important to better understand the mammalian immune system.

In this thesis, the evolution of the mast cell chymase locus was analysed by mapping the locus in all available mammalian genome sequences. It was revealed that one single ancestral gene founded this locus probably over 215 million years ago. This ancestor was duplicated more than 185 million years ago. One copy evolved into the α-chymases, whereas the second copy founded the families of granzymes B and H, cathepsin G, Mcpt8 and duodenases. Different subfamilies were later remarkably expanded in particular mammalian lineages, e.g. the Mcpt8- and Mcpt2-subfamilies in the rat. Four novel members of these families were identified in rat mucosal mast cells. Rat and mouse mast cells express numerous different graspases, whereas human and dog mast cells express only one graspase, chymase. To better understand mast cell functions in these species, one member of the mouse Mcpt8-family, mMCP-8, and human and dog chymase were studied. The preferred substrate sequence was analysed by substrate phage display. mMCP-8 remains yet enigmatic, although it is probably proteolytically active. Dog and human chymase, interestingly, have common preferences in certain substrate positions, but differ in others. These two chymases may have coevolved with an in vivo substrate that is conserved only in the positions with a common preference. We also obtained evidence that substrate positions on either side of the scissile bond influence each other. This kind of interactions can only be detected with a method investigating both sides simultaneously, such as substrate phage display.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 90 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 250
Keyword
Immunology, immune system, mast cell, chymase locus, serine protease, evolution, gene duplication, Immunologi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7379 (URN)91-554-6748-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-12-20, C4:305, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29Bibliographically approved

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