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Indoor molds, bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds and plasticizers in schools: associations with asthma and respiratory symptoms in pupils
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Eva Vingård)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Eva Vingård)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Eva Vingård)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Eva Vingård)
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2007 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 17, no 2, 153-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated asthma and atopy in relation to microbial and plasticizer exposure. Pupils in eight primary schools in Uppsala (Sweden) answered a questionnaire, 1014 (68%) participated. Totally, 7.7% reported doctor-diagnosed asthma, 5.9% current asthma, and 12.2% allergy to pollen/pets. Wheeze was reported by 7.8%, 4.5% reported daytime breathlessness, and 2.0% nocturnal breathlessness. Measurements were performed in 23 classrooms (May–June), 74% had <1000 ppm CO2 indoors. None had visible mold growth or dampness. Mean total microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) concentration was 423 ng/m3 indoors and 123 ng/m3 outdoors. Indoor concentration of TMPD-MIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate, Texanol) and TMPD-DIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate, TXIB), two common plasticizers, were 0.89 and 1.64 μg/m3, respectively. MVOC and plasticizer concentration were correlated (r = 0.5; P < 0.01). Mold concentration was 360 cfu/m3 indoors and 980 cfu/m3 outdoors. At higher indoor concentrations of total MVOC, nocturnal breathlessness (P < 0.01) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (P < 0.05) were more common. Moreover, there were positive associations between nocturnal breathlessness and 3-methylfuran (P < 0.01), 3-methyl-1-butanol (P < 0.05), dimethyldisulfide (P < 0.01), 2-heptanone (P < 0.01), 1-octen-3-ol (P < 0.05), 3-octanone (P < 0.05), TMPD-MIB (P < 0.05), and TMPD-DIB (P < 0.01). TMPD-DIB was positively associated with wheeze (P < 0.05), daytime breathlessness (P < 0.05), doctor-diagnosed asthma (P < 0.05), and current asthma (P < 0.05). In conclusion, exposure to MVOC and plasticizers at school may be a risk factor for asthmatic symptoms in children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 17, no 2, 153-163 p.
Keyword [en]
Asthma, Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs), Plasticizer, Pupil, Respiratory symptoms, School
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95269DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2006.00466.xISI: 000245155700008PubMedID: 17391238OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-95269DiVA: diva2:169425
Available from: 2006-12-20 Created: 2006-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental Factors in Relation to Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms among Schoolchildren in Sweden and Korea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Factors in Relation to Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms among Schoolchildren in Sweden and Korea
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis studied environmental factors in relation to asthma and respiratory symptoms among schoolchildren in two countries. In Sweden, 1014 pupils (5-14 year) in 8 schools participated. Wheeze was reported by 7.8%, current asthma by 5.9%, doctor-diagnosed asthma by 7.7%, cat allergy by 6.8% and dog allergy by 4.8%. Current asthma was less common among those consuming more fresh milk and fish. Doctor-diagnosed asthma was less common among those consuming olive oil. Cat, dog and horse allergens were common in settled dust and related to respiratory symptoms. Pupils consuming butter and fresh milk had less respiratory symptoms in relation to allergen exposure. In schools with increased levels of microbial volatile organic compounds and selected plasticizers (Texanol and TXIB) asthma and respiratory symptoms were more common.

In Korea, 2365 pupils (9-11 year) in 12 schools participated (96%). In total, wheeze was reported by 8.0%, current asthma by 5.7%, doctor-diagnosed asthma by 5.4%, cat allergy by 2.6% and dog allergy by 4.9%. Contamination of dog and mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) allergen was common while cat allergen was uncommon. Remodelling, changing floor and building dampness at home were positively associated with asthma and respiratory symptoms. The strongest associations were found for floor dampness. Indoor/outdoor concentration of NO2, formaldehyde and ultrafine particles (UFP) at schools were positively associated with asthma and respiratory symptoms.

When comparing Sweden and Korea, Korean pupils had more breathlessness and asthma but reported less cat and pollen allergy. Swedish schools had CO2-levels below 1000 ppm, while most Korean schools exceeded this standard. Since both home and school environment may affect pupil’s asthma and respiratory symptoms, air quality should be an important health issue. Moreover, changes in dietary habits may be beneficial to decrease asthma and allergies. Furthermore, interaction between diet and environment needs to be further investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. 67 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 212
Keyword
Medical sciences, Allergen, allergy, asthma, dampness, diet, environment, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, plasticizer, schoolchildren, ultrafine particles, MEDICIN OCH VÅRD
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7418 (URN)91-554-6758-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-01-19, MIC AULA (at Restaurang Rullan), Hus 6, Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-12-20 Created: 2006-12-20Bibliographically approved

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Kim, Jeong-LimElfman, LenaWieslander, GunillaSmedje, GretaNorbäck, Dan

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