Indoor molds, bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds and plasticizers in schools: associations with asthma and respiratory symptoms in pupils
2007 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 17, no 2, 153-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We investigated asthma and atopy in relation to microbial and plasticizer exposure. Pupils in eight primary schools in Uppsala (Sweden) answered a questionnaire, 1014 (68%) participated. Totally, 7.7% reported doctor-diagnosed asthma, 5.9% current asthma, and 12.2% allergy to pollen/pets. Wheeze was reported by 7.8%, 4.5% reported daytime breathlessness, and 2.0% nocturnal breathlessness. Measurements were performed in 23 classrooms (May–June), 74% had <1000 ppm CO2 indoors. None had visible mold growth or dampness. Mean total microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) concentration was 423 ng/m3 indoors and 123 ng/m3 outdoors. Indoor concentration of TMPD-MIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate, Texanol) and TMPD-DIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate, TXIB), two common plasticizers, were 0.89 and 1.64 μg/m3, respectively. MVOC and plasticizer concentration were correlated (r = 0.5; P < 0.01). Mold concentration was 360 cfu/m3 indoors and 980 cfu/m3 outdoors. At higher indoor concentrations of total MVOC, nocturnal breathlessness (P < 0.01) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (P < 0.05) were more common. Moreover, there were positive associations between nocturnal breathlessness and 3-methylfuran (P < 0.01), 3-methyl-1-butanol (P < 0.05), dimethyldisulfide (P < 0.01), 2-heptanone (P < 0.01), 1-octen-3-ol (P < 0.05), 3-octanone (P < 0.05), TMPD-MIB (P < 0.05), and TMPD-DIB (P < 0.01). TMPD-DIB was positively associated with wheeze (P < 0.05), daytime breathlessness (P < 0.05), doctor-diagnosed asthma (P < 0.05), and current asthma (P < 0.05). In conclusion, exposure to MVOC and plasticizers at school may be a risk factor for asthmatic symptoms in children.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 17, no 2, 153-163 p.
Asthma, Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs), Plasticizer, Pupil, Respiratory symptoms, School
Medical and Health Sciences Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95269DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2006.00466.xISI: 000245155700008PubMedID: 17391238OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-95269DiVA: diva2:169425